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|Photovoltaic Solar Energy - 23/02/2015
The French physicist Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel was the discoverer of the effect photovoltaic in 1839, fundamental for the development of the photoelectric cells.
Basic structure of a solar cell based on silicon, and its principle of operation.
The term "photovoltaic" began to be used in the United Kingdom in the year 1849.28 comes from the Greek φώς: phos, which means "light", and - voltage, coming from the field of electricity, in honor of the Italian physicist Alejandro Volta.
The photovoltaic effect was recognized for the first time some ten years before, in 1839 by French physicist Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel, but the first solar cell was not manufactured until 1883. Its creator was Charles Fritts, who covered a sample of semiconductor selenium with gold leaf to form the union. This primitive device presented one less than 1% efficiency, but that showed in a practical way, producing electricity with light was possible. Studies in the 19th century by Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell, Nikola Tesla, Heinrich Hertz on Electromagnetic induction, electric forces and electromagnetic waves, and especially those of Albert Einstein in 1905, provided the theoretical background to the photoelectric effect, which is the basis of the conversion of solar energy to electricity.
Principle of operation
Main article: photovoltaic cell
In a semiconductor that is exposed to light, a photon of energy kicks off an electron, while creating a «gap» in the excited atom. Typically, electron can be found another hole to fill it, and provided by Photon, therefore, energy dissipates as heat. The principle of a photovoltaic cell is force the electrons and holes to move towards the opposite side of the material rather than simply still recombine in it: thus, there will be a potential and therefore voltage difference between the two parts of the material, as in a stack.
To do so, creates a permanent electric field, through a union pn, between two layers doped respectively, p and n. In the Silicon cells, which are mostly used, are therefore:
The top layer of the cell, which is composed of n.nota.-type doped Silicon In this layer, there are one larger number of free electrons than in a layer of pure silicon, hence the name of doping n, negative. The material is electrically neutral, since both the dopant material silicon atoms are neutral: but the Crystal network globally has a greater presence of electrons which are represented in a network of pure silicon.
The bottom layer of the cell, which is composed of Silicon doped p.nota type this layer has therefore one medium amount of free electrons less than a layer of pure silicon. The electrons are bound to the crystalline network which, consequently, is electrically neutral but has holes, positive (p). The electrical conduction is ensured by these charge carriers, which move by all the material.
At the time of the creation of the union pn, free layer electrons n instantly enter the layer p and recombine with the holes in the region p. thus exist throughout the life of the union, a positive charge in the region along the union (because you are missing electrons) and one negative in the region at p along the union charge (because the holes have disappeared); the whole forms the 'zone of load space' (ZCE) and there is an electric field between the two, from n to p. This electric field makes the ZCE a diode, which only allows the flow of current in one direction: the electrons can move from the region p to n, but not in the opposite direction and conversely voids do not pass more than n to p.
In operation, when a photon starts an electron to the matrix, creating a free electron and a hole, under the effect of this electric field each goes in the opposite direction: the electrons accumulate in the region n (to become negative), while holes will accumulate in the doped region p (which becomes the positive pole). This phenomenon is most effective in the ZCE, where there is almost no charge (electrons or holes) carriers, since they are canceled, or close to the ZCE: when a photon creates an electron-hole pair, separated and it is unlikely that you find its opposite, but if the creation takes place at a site further away from the unionthe electron (become hollow) maintains a great opportunity for still recombine before reaching the area n. But the ZCE is necessarily very thin, so it is not useful to give a thick cell. Indeed, the thickness of the layer is very small, since this layer is just basically need to create the ZCE that runs the cell. On the other hand, the thickness of the layer p is higher: depends on a compromise between the need to minimize electron-hole recombinations, and instead allow the capture of the largest possible number of photons, which requires certain minimum thickness.
In short, a photovoltaic cell is the equivalent of a power generator to which has been added a diode. To achieve a practical solar cell, it is also necessary to add electrical contacts (that allow to extract the energy generated), a layer that protects the cell but let pass the light, a layer of anti-glare to ensure proper absorption of the photons, and other elements that increase the efficiency of the same.
First modern solar cell.
American engineer Russell Ohl patented the modern in the year 1946 solar cell, although other researchers had advanced in its developed previously: in 1914, the Swedish physicist Sven Ason Berglund had patented a method that sought to increase the capacity of photosensitive cells, while in 1931, the German engineer Bruno Lange had developed a photocell using silver instead of copper selenide.
The modern era of solar technology did not arrive until 1954, when U.S. researchers Gerald Pearson, Calvin S. Fuller, and Daryl Chapin, Bell Laboratories, discovered accidentally that certain impurities doped silicon semiconductors were very sensitive to light. These developments contributed to the first commercial solar cell manufacturing. They employed a diffuse Silicon p-n union, with a conversion of solar energy of approximately 6%, an achievement compared to the Selenium cells hardly amounting to 0.5%.
American Les Hoffman, President of the company Hoffman Electronics, through its semiconductor division was later one of the pioneers in manufacturing and production on a large scale solar cells. Between 1954 and 1960, Hoffman was able to improve the efficiency of photovoltaic cells to 14%, reducing the costs of manufacturing to achieve a product that could be marketed.
At the beginning, photovoltaic cells used form minority to electrically power toys and other minor uses, since the cost of production of electricity by means of these primitive cells was too high: in relative terms, a cell that produced a watt of energy through sunlight could cost $250, compared with 2 or 3 dollars it cost a Watt from a coal-fired thermoelectric power station.
Photovoltaic cells were rescued from oblivion thanks to the space race and the suggestion of using them in one of the first satellites put into orbit around the Earth. The Soviet Union launched the first space satellite in 1957, and United States would follow a year later. The first spacecraft used solar panels was the U.S. Vanguard satellite, launched in March 1958 (today the oldest satellite still in orbit). Solar cell created by Peter Iles in an effort led by Hoffman Electronics company were used in the design of this. Photovoltaic system allowed him to continue to transmit for seven years while the chemical batteries were sold out in just 20 days.
In 1959, the United States launched the Explorer. This satellite had installed a series of solar modules, supported by external structures similar to wings, formed by 9600 solar cells of the Hoffman company. This type of device later became a common feature of many satellites. There was some initial skepticism about the operation of the system, but in practice solar cells proved to be a great success, and soon were incorporated into the design of new satellites.
A few years later, in 1962, the Telstar became the first communications satellite equipped with solar cells capable of providing a power of 14W.This milestone has generated great interest in the production and launch of geostationary satellites for the development of communications, that energy would come from a catchment of the Sun device. It was a crucial development which stimulated research by some Governments and which promoted the improvement of photovoltaic panels. Gradually, the space industry opted for the use of (GaAs) gallium arsenide solar cells, due to their higher efficiency Silicon cells. In 1970 the first solar with heterostructure of gallium arsenide and highly efficient cell developed in the Soviet Union by Zhorés Alfiórov and his research team.
From 1971, the Soviet space stations of the Salyut program were the first orbital complex manned in obtaining their energy from solar cells, coupled structures to the sides of the orbital module, as well as the American Skylab station, a few years later.
In the 1970s, after the first oil crisis, the Department of energy of the United States and the space agency NASA initiated the study of the concept of solar energy in space, which was desirous to terrestrial energy supply by space satellites. In 1979 proposed a fleet of satellites in geostationary orbit, each of which would measure 5 x 10 km, and would produce between 5 and 10 GW. The construction involved the creation of a large factory space where would work continuously hundreds of astronauts. This Gigantism was typical of an era in which projected the creation of large space cities. Putting aside the technical difficulties, the proposal was scrapped in 1981 to involve a nonsensical cost. In the mid-1980, with oil prices again, the program was canceled.
However, the photovoltaic applications in space satellites continued its development. The production equipment of chemical deposition of metals by organic vapors or MOCVD (Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition) was not developed until the 1980s, limiting the ability of companies in the manufacture of gallium arsenide solar cells. The first company that crafted solar panels in industrial quantities, from simple unions of GaAs, with an efficiency of 17% at AM0 (Air Mass Zero), was the American Applied Solar Energy Corporation (ASEC). Double Junction cells began its production in industrial quantities by ASEC in 1989, accidentally, as a result of a change of the GaAs substrates of GaAs to GaAs on germanium substrates.
Photovoltaic technology, even though it is not the only one used, remains dominant at the beginning of the 21st century in Earth orbit satellites. For example, the probes Magellan, Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Observer, NASA, used photovoltaic panels, as well as the space telescope Hubble, orbiting the Earth. The international space station, also in Earth orbit, is equipped with large photovoltaic systems that feed the entire space complex, just like in his day, the Mir space station. Other space vehicles that use photovoltaics to supply are the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter probe, Spirit and Opportunity, on Mars NASA robots.
The Hubble Space Telescope, equipped with solar panels, is put into orbit from the hold of the shuttle Discovery in 1990.
The ship Rosetta, launched in 2004 in orbit for a comet so far away from the Sun as the planet Jupiter (5.25 AU), also has solar panels; previously, the farthest space solar power use was probe Stardust, to 2 AU. Photovoltaics has been also used successfully in unmanned European mission to the Moon, SMART-1, providing power to the propeller of Hall effect. The Juno spacecraft will be the first mission to Jupiter to use photovoltaic panels instead of a thermoelectric generator of radioisotopes, traditionally used in space missions to the outside of the Solar System. He is currently studying the potential of photovoltaics to equip the spaceships that orbiten beyond Jupiter.
First terrestrial applications.
Applications isolated from the mains were one of the first terrestrial uses of solar photovoltaics, contributing greatly to its development. In the picture, lighthouse of Noup Head in United Kingdom.
Since its emergence in the aerospace industry, which has become the most reliable for electrical power in space vehicles, photovoltaic solar energy has developed a large number of terrestrial applications. The first commercial installation of this type was held in 1966, at the lighthouse of the island Ogami (Japan), allowing you to replace the use of torch gas by renewable and self-sustaining power. It was the first lighthouse in the world powered by photovoltaics, and was crucial to demonstrate the feasibility and potential of this energy source.
The improvements occurred slowly over the following two decades, and the only widespread use occurred in space applications, in which their relationship power to weight was greater than for any other technology competitor. However, this success was also the reason for its slow growth: aerospace market was willing to pay any price to get the best possible cells, so there was no reason to invest in lower-cost solutions if this reduced efficiency. Instead, the price of the cells was determined largely by the semiconductor industry; their migration to the technology of integrated circuits in the Decade of 1960 resulted in the availability of larger ingots at relatively lower prices. Dropping your price, the price of photovoltaic cells resulting descended in equal measure. However, the reduction of costs associated with this growing popularization of photovoltaics was limited, and in 1970 the cost of solar cells still estimated at $100 per watt ($/Wp).
Reduction of prices.
One of the pioneers of the development of photovoltaic technology for terrestrial use, Elliot Berman, try different photovoltaic modules manufactured by his company, Solar Power Corporation, at the beginning of the 1970's.
At the end of the 1960's, the American industrial chemist Elliot Berman was investigating a new method for the production of raw silicon based process on tape. However, he found little interest in your project and it failed to obtain the necessary financing for its development. Later, in a chance encounter, it was presented to a team from the oil company Exxon that they were looking for strategic projects 30-year view. The Group had come to the conclusion that power would be much more costly in the year 2000, and considered that this increase in price would be more attractive to new sources of energy alternatives, being the most interesting among these solar energy. In 1969, Berman joined the laboratory of Exxon in Linden, N.j., called Solar Power Corporation (SPC).
His effort was directed first to analyze the potential market to identify possible applications that exist for this new product, and quickly discovered that, if the cost per watt were reduced from the /Wp $100 to nearly $20 /Wp would emerge a significant demand. Aware that the concept of "Silicon tape" could take years to develop, the team began to look for ways to reduce the price to $20 /Wp using existing materials. The finding that existing cells were based on the standard semiconductor manufacturing process was a first step, even if it were not an ideal material. The process began with the formation of an ingot of silicon, which is cut transversely into disc called wafers. Later was the polished wafers and was equipped for use as cell, then coated with a layer anti reflective. Berman realized that rough cut wafers had of itself a front surface reflecting anti perfectly valid, and by printing the electrodes directly on this surface, were eliminated two major steps in the manufacturing process of cells.
His team also explored other ways to improve the Assembly of cells in arrays, eliminating the costly materials and wiring manual used hitherto on space applications. Your solution consisted of using printed circuit board in the back, acrylic plastic on the front, and adhesive silicone between the two, inlaying the cells. Berman realized that existing market silicon was already "good enough" for use in solar cells. Small imperfections that could ruin an ingot of Silicon (or a single wafer) for use in electronics, would have little effect in solar applications. Photovoltaic cells could be manufactured from material discarded by the electronics market, which would result in an improvement of its price.
Putting into practice all of these changes, the company started to buy at very low cost silicon rejected existing manufacturers. Through the use of available larger wafers, which reduced the amount of wiring for a given panel area, and packaging them in panels with their new methods, in 1973 SPC was producing panels $10 /Wp and selling them to 20 $/ Wp, decreasing the price of PV modules to a fifth part in just two years.
The market of maritime navigation.
Marine buoy operated by the National Oceanic and atmospheric (NOAA) of the United States.
SPC began to contact the companies manufacturers of navigation buoys offering the product, but met with a curious situation. The main enterprise of the sector was Automatic Power, a manufacturer of disposable batteries. To realize that solar cells could eat part of the business and profits producing by the battery industry, Automatic Power bought a solar prototype of Hoffman Electronics to finish painting itself dreary development it.Seeing that there was no interest by Automatic Power, SPC then turned to Tideland Signal, another battery company formed by Automatic Power ex-gerentes. Tideland presented a buoy powered by photovoltaic energy in the market and soon was ruining the business of Automatic Power.
The time could not be more appropriate, the rapid increase in the number of oil rigs at sea and other cargo facilities produced a huge market among oil companies. As Tideland had succeeded, Automatic Power then began to procure its own supply of photovoltaic solar panels. They found Bill Yerkes, Solar Power International (SPI) in California, which was looking for a market to sell their product. SPI soon was acquired by one of its most important clients, the oil giant ARCO, forming Solar arc. ARCO Solar in Camarillo (California) factory was the first dedicated to the construction of solar panels, and was in continuous operation since its purchase by arc in 1977 until 2011 when it was closed by the company SolarWorld.
This situation is combined with the 1973 oil crisis. Oil companies now had huge funds due to their enormous revenues during the crisis, but were also well aware that their future success would depend on any other power source. In the following years, big oil companies began the creation of a series of solar energy companies, and were the largest producers of solar panels for decades. Companies ARCO, Exxon, Shell, Amoco (later acquired by BP) and Mobil maintained large solar divisions during the 1970 and 1980. Technology firms also made substantial investments, including General Electric, Motorola, IBM, Tyco and RCA.
Perfecting the technology.
Electric vehicle powered by photovoltaics, winner of the South African Solar Challenge.
In the decades since the advances of Berman, the improvements have reduced production costs below 1 $/ Wp, with prices less than $2 /Wp for all photovoltaic system. The price of the other elements of a photovoltaic system is at present a higher cost than the own panels.
As the semiconductor industry is developed towards increasingly large ingots, the older computers were available at reduced prices. The cells grew in size when these older computers were made available on the surplus market. The first arc Solar panels were equipped with cells of 2 to 4 inches (51 to 100 mm) in diameter. The panels in the 1990s and early 2000 incorporated generally 5 inches (125 mm) cells, and since 2008 new panels used cells of 6 inches (150 mm). Also the widespread introduction of the flat screen TVs by the end of the 1990's and early 2000 led to a widespread availability of large sheets of glass of high quality, which are used in the front part of the panels.
In terms of the cells themselves, has seen only a major change. During the 1990s, polysilicon cells became increasingly popular. These cells offer less efficiency than those of monosilicio, but are grown in large vats that greatly reduce the cost of production. In the mid-2000, the polysilicon dominated in the market of low-cost panels.
Solar PV applications.
Telecommunications Repeater powered by solar panels. In places of difficult access, photovoltaic energy allows to supply electricity in practical and competitive way.
Parking meter supplied by photovoltaic solar energy, in Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
Sharp basic solar calculator.
Mountain retreat powered by photovoltaic energy, in the National Park of Aigüestortes and Lake San Mauricio (Pyrenees, Spain).
Manufacturing large-scale photovoltaic panels took off in the 1980's, and its multiple uses they include:
Telecommunications and signalling.
Solar PV is ideal for applications in telecommunications, which include for example local stations, antennas of radio and television, microwave repeater stations and other types of electronic communication links. This is because, in the majority of telecommunications applications, storage batteries are used and the electric installation is normally direct current (DC). In hilly and mountainous terrain, the radio and television signals can be interfered with or reflected because of the hilly terrain. In these sites, (LPT) low-power transmitters are installed to receive and retransmit the signal among the local population.
Photovoltaic cells are also used to feed systems of emergency communications, for example on the SOS (emergency telephone) posts on roads, railway signalling, marking for protection aeronautical, meteorological stations, or environmental data and water quality monitoring systems.
The reduction in the power consumption of integrated circuits, made possible at the end of the 1970s the use of solar cells as a source of electricity in calculators, such as the Royal Solar 1, Sharp EL-8026 or Teal Photon.
Other fixed devices that use photovoltaics have also seen increased use in recent decades, in places where the cost of connection to the mains supply or the use of disposable batteries is prohibitively expensive. These applications include, for example, solar lamps, water pumps, parking meters, emergency telephones, trash compactors, temporary or permanent traffic signs, charging stations or remote surveillance systems.
In isolated environments, where it requires little electrical power and access to the network is difficult, photovoltaics are used as an economically viable alternative for decades. To understand the importance of this possibility, it should be noted that about one-quarter of the world's population still has no access to electric power.
In developing countries, many peoples are located in remote areas, several kilometers from the nearest power grid. As a result, photovoltaic power increasingly is being incorporated to provide electric power to homes or medical facilities in rural areas. For example, in remote parts of India a rural lighting program has provided lighting using LED lamps powered by solar energy to replace kerosene lamps. The price of solar lamps was approximately the same as the cost of the supply of kerosene for a few months. Cuba and other countries in Latin America are working to provide photovoltaics in areas far from the conventional power supply. These are areas in which the social and economic benefits for local people offered an excellent reason to install photovoltaic panels, although normally this type of initiative has been relegated to specific humanitarian efforts.
Photovoltaic pumping systems can be used to provide water in irrigation systems, drinking water in isolated communities or watering livestock.
Also employed photovoltaics to power facilities from pumping for irrigation systems, drinking water in rural areas and waterers for cattle or for water desalination systems.
(Just like the fed by wind energy) photovoltaic pumping systems are very useful there where it is not possible to access the general power grid either assumes a prohibitive price. Its cost is usually cheaper because their lower costs of operation and maintenance, and they have a lower environmental impact than pumping systems powered by internal combustion engines, which have also a lower reliability.
Pumps used can be both alternating current (AC) as direct current (DC). DC motors for small and medium applications up to 3 kW of power, are usually used while AC motors coupled to an inverter that transforms for use DC power from photovoltaic panels are used for larger applications.This allows sizing systems from 0.15 kW to 55 kW of power, that they can be used to supply complex systems of irrigation or water storage.
Solar-diesel hybrid systems.
Due to the decline in costs of photovoltaic solar energy, is also spreading the use of solar-diesel hybrid systems, which combine this power with diesel generators to produce electricity in a continuous and stable way. Such facilities are normally equipped with auxiliary equipment, such as batteries and special control systems to achieve the stability of the power supply of the system at all times.
Due to their economic viability (the transport of diesel to the point of consumption tends to be expensive) in many cases replaced old photovoltaic generator, while the new hybrid facilities are designed in such a way that they allow to use the solar resource whenever it is available, minimizing the use of generators, thus reducing the environmental impact of power generation in remote communities and facilities that are not connected to the mains. Are an example of this mining companies, whose holdings are normally found in the open field, away from the large population centres.In these cases, the combined use of photovoltaics allows to greatly reduce the dependence on diesel fuel, allowing savings of up to 70% on the cost of energy.
This type of system also can be used in combination with other sources of renewable energy, such as wind power generation.
Transport and maritime navigation.
Equipment of Nuna 3, solar car competitor in the World Solar Challenge.
Although the photovoltaic still is used widely to provide traction on transport, use increasingly more to provide auxiliary power in boats and cars.Some vehicles are equipped with air conditioning powered by photovoltaic panels to limit internal temperature on hot days, while other hybrid prototypes are used to recharge your batteries without connecting to the mains supply. It has been amply shown the practical possibility of design and manufacture vehicles powered by solar energy, as well as ships and aircraft, being considered transport rolled the most viable for photovoltaics.
The Solar Impulse is a project dedicated to the development of an aircraft powered only by solar photovoltaics. The prototype can fly during the day powered by solar cells covering their wings, as well as charging batteries that allow you to stay in the air overnight.
Solar energy is also used routinely in lighthouses, buoys and beacons for maritime navigation, recreational vehicles, charging systems for electric accumulators of boats, and cathodic protection systems. The recharging of electric vehicles is gaining increasing importance.
Photovoltaics integrated in buildings.
Solar marquee situated in the car park of the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid (Madrid, Spain).
Project BIPV ISSOL at Perpignan, France Gare TGV railway station.
Main article: photovoltaics integrated in buildings
Many photovoltaic facilities are often located in buildings: they are usually placed on an existing roof, either integrated into the structure of the building elements, such as skylights, skylights or facades.
Alternatively, a photovoltaic system can also be located physically separated from the building, but connected to the electrical system of the same to power. In 2010, more than 80% of the 9000 MW of photovoltaics that Germany had in operation at the time, had been installed on roofs.
Photovoltaics integrated in buildings (BIPV, its acronym in English) is being incorporated as increasing electrical supply main or secondary in new domestic and industrial buildings, and even in other architectural elements, such as for example bridges. The tiles with integrated photovoltaic cells are also quite common in this type of integration.
According to a study published in 2011, the use of thermal imaging has shown that solar panels, provided that there is a gap opened by which air can circulate between the panels and the ceiling, provide an effect of passive cooling in buildings during the day and also help to keep the heat accumulated during the night.
One of the main applications of photovoltaic solar energy more developed in recent years, consists of stations connected to power supply network, as well as photovoltaic self-consumption of power systems generally minor, but also connected to the mains.
A photovoltaic solar plant components.
A photovoltaic solar plant has various elements that enable its operation, such as photovoltaic panels to capture solar radiation, and investors for the transformation of the direct current into alternating current. There are others, the most important are listed below:
Photovoltaic solar panels
Main article: photovoltaic Panel
Generally, a module or photovoltaic panel consists of an Association of cells, encapsulated in two layers of EVA (ethylene-vinyl - acetate), between a front sheet of glass and a subsequent layer of a thermoplastic polymer (often used the tedlar) or another sheet of glass when you want the modules with some degree of transparency. Very often this set is framed in a structure in anodized aluminium in order to increase the mechanical strength of the whole and to facilitate the anchorage of the module to the supporting structures.
Cells commonly used in photovoltaic panels are silicon, and it can be divided into three subcategories:
Monocrystalline silicon cells consist of a single crystal of silicon, normally manufactured using the Czochralski process. This type of cell is a uniform dark blue color.
Cells of polycrystalline silicon (also called multicrystalline) consist of a set of silicon crystals, which explains that their performance is somewhat lower than monocrystalline cells. They are characterized by a more intense blue color.
Amorphous silicon cells. They are less efficient than crystalline but also less costly Silicon cells. This type of cell is, for example, which is used in applications such as watches or calculators.
A solar inverter installed in a plant of connection to network in Speyer, Germany.
Main article: inverter (electronics)
Continuous electric current provided by the photovoltaic modules can transform into alternating current by means of an electronic device called inverter and injected into the mains (for energy sale) either on the internal network (for consumption).
The streamlined process, would read as follows:
It generates energy at low voltages (380-800 V) and DC.
It transforms with an investor in alternating current.
In less than 100 kW power plants energy is injected directly to the distribution network at low voltage (three-phase 400 V or 230 V single phase).
And for powers higher than the 100 kW transformer is used to raise the energy to the medium voltage (15 or 25 kV) and injected into transport for its rear supply networks.
Plant located on the Base of Nellis Air Force (Nevada, United States). These panels follow the path of the Sun on an axis.
Main article: solar Tracker
The use of fans to one or two axes allows to considerably increase the solar production, around 30% for the former and an additional 6% for the latter, in places of high direct radiation.
Solar trackers are fairly common in photovoltaic applications. There are various types:
On two axes: the surface is always perpendicular to the Sun.
In a polar axis: the surface rotates about an axis oriented to the South and tilted an angle equal to the latitude. The rotation is adjusted to match the normal to the surface at all times the terrestrial meridian containing the Sun.
On an azimuthal axis: the surface rotates about a vertical axis, the angle of the surface is constant and equal to the latitude. Rotation is adjusted to match the normal to the surface at all times with the local Meridian containing the Sun.
On a horizontal axis: the surface rotates on a horizontal axis oriented North-South. The rotation is adjusted to match the normal to the surface at all times the terrestrial meridian containing the Sun.
A solar panel connectors, used to carry DC power generated by the same to the inverter, where usually turns into AC power for later use.
Main article: electrical Conductor
It is the element that carries power from its generation, distribution and transportation. Its size is determined by the more restrictive criterion between the maximum permissible voltage drop and the admissible maximum intensity. Increase the sections of conductor are obtained as result of theoretical calculations provides added benefits such as:
Most downloaded lines, which prolongs the life of the cables.
Possibility of increased power from the floor without change the driver.
Best response to possible short circuits.
Improvement of the performance ratio (PR) of the installation.
Concentrated photovoltaic plants.
Solar Tracker with panels of concentration photovoltaic, capable of producing 53 kW. At his side is electric vehicles Tesla Roadster, allowing you to appreciate its scale.
Main article: concentrated photovoltaic solar energy
Another type of technology in photovoltaic plants are those that use a concentration technology called CPV for its acronym in English (Concentrated Photovoltaics) to maximize the solar energy received by installation, as in a thermal power plant solar. Concentrated photovoltaic installations are situated in locations of high direct solar irradiation, such as countries to both shores of the Mediterranean, Australia, United States, China, South Africa, Mexico, etc. Until the year 2006 these technologies were part of the field of research, but in recent years have been launched larger installations like the ISFOC (Institute of concentration photovoltaic solar systems) in Puertollano (Castilla La Mancha) with 3 MW, supplying electricity to the grid.
The basic idea of the concentrated photovoltaic is the substitution of semiconductor material by reflecting material or reflective (cheaper). The degree of concentration can reach a factor of 1000 in such a way that, given the small area of solar cell used, you can use the most efficient technology (triple-junction, for example). On the other hand, the optical system introduces a factor of loss making to recover less radiation than the photovoltaic flat. This, coupled with the high precision tracking systems, is the main barrier to solve concentration technology.
Recently announced the development of plants of large dimensions (above 1 MW). Concentrated photovoltaic plants use a dual axis Tracker to enable a maximum advantage of the solar resource throughout the day.
The development of photovoltaic solar energy in the world.
World map of solar radiation. Small dots on the map show the total photovoltaic area required to meet the global demand for energy using solar panels with an efficiency of 8%.
Historically, the U
|Spain, in danger of breaching its 2020 renewables target - 04/02/2015
The European Commission set in 2007, expanding the renewable energy sector, a seemingly ambitious target -a environmentalists always it seemed insufficiently: countries reached by 2020 renewable share 20% of total consumption energy. It was binding, that is, the defaulter could face sanctions. "It is very unlikely that Spain achieve its objective" to current market conditions, ruling now, just five years after the deadline, a report by the European Environment Agency.
Agency (EEA, its acronym in English) studied in this paper, released today, how has evolved the energy market in Europe and how they have helped to give the current raw form. Supporting renewable has increased, he says, while subsidies to the dirtiest energy has been declining gradually. However, the report highlights that still remains a "significant" number of subsidies to conventional energy sources (nuclear and fossil fuels) in most states. Spain is one of the four case studies that dedicated to in-depth analysis.
"There is a potential inconsistency," says the report, among the Spanish energy objectives were formulated in 2007 and the current policy with renewables, as highlighted is to try to tackle the tariff deficit by suspending incentives. The Government approved in 2012 a royal decree law to temporarily suspend premium new electricity generation facilities called special regime: wind, photovoltaic, solar thermal, biomass, cogeneration, water and waste.
"Spain has long been a leader in renewable energy," recalls the agency. He adds that in 2011 these energies accounted for 15% of all consumption, far above the intermediate target proposed by the European Commission for 2011-2012, which was 11%. However, the "major adjustment" in recent years has meant that "the transition to renewable energy in Spain has lost momentum."
The latest data from Eurostat, in 2012, show that in Spain 14.3% of the energy consumed was renewable. Sweden, Estonia and Bulgaria are the only countries that have exceeded their individual objectives -not all- equal to 2020 (49%, 25% and 16%, respectively).
| - 07/01/2015
|Toll back there ... Long live the autopconsumo !!! - 16/12/2014
If today there is one and only truth entirely objective in the Spanish electricity sector, this is without doubt the toll backup does not exist yet ... and yet we live and act as if we were physically present, petite contradiction .... this is called masochism without nocturnal suicide but much treachery ... or is not it?
We analyze projects with the support toll reject projects based on the impact of toll backup goodbye to people because the toll waning support us business, we buy 100% of our energy to power thanks to toll support and obviously we continue to pollute at the mercy of toll backup ... and the toll it back there !!!!!
And if all this were not enough without reason, above we propose "non-legal" or "illegal" (damn euphemism) without injection of surplus to the network, with associated costs generated by, just in case someone detect and punish us with projects a fine of 60 million Euros that does not exist !!!
We have definitely gone mad ...
Today we dedicate our weekly to analyze the legal situation of consumption in Spain as of today, plain and simple article today, and leave to the more adventurous tarot, divination; and that is if we have learned anything throughout this term and paraphrase Joaquin Sabina in his sad melody So I'm without you , we could agree that the word of our esteemed Minister Jose Manuel Soria is more useless than a stamp in triplicate, the semen of hanged and that the book of the future ...
It goes without saying that neither affirm nor confirmed the toll backup never come into existence; I just say that today only we can catalog of difficult pipe dream to believe and to accept, and even understanding, and even sharing the fears of those considering installing it themselves at home or in your company, maybe we should start answer the following question ... Is Mr. Minister approve such effrontery when has managed to paralyze the sector without losing face with the EU will risk? If approved, what economic terms, and how long we think that may be in effect?
And is that we can not deny merit to Mr. Soria, he has given us a lecture on how to cripple a sector without passing anything; simply by modifying the weight of the capacity and energy in the electricity tariff and drop a hoax in draft form, there have been more than enough to certify a second time in just a legislature leader's death Spanish photovoltaic once global and leading exponent of the art technology.
But let's get down to business ... What is the current regulatory situation of consumption in Spain?
For the moment it is the same from the November 18, 2011, when the previous socialist government, not very fond of the renewable, not for nothing were the ones who began the path of the cuts retroactive approved the Royal Decree 1699/2011by the the networking of production facilities of electricity from small power is regulated.
This royal decree recognizing on the one hand the possibility of connecting solar installations up to 100 kW in the inner wall of the consumer, which de facto is known as instant consumption; and secondly to the Minister of Industry was urged, in its second additional provision, to raise the government within a maximum period of four months, a proposed royal decree whose purpose was the regulation of the administrative, technical and economical consumption the electrical energy produced within the network of a consumer for his own consumption .... in other words, a proposal to extend the domestic consumption sector through the simplification of administrative procedures and regulation and approval of net balance.
It's been exactly 901 days, and the situation is exactly the same ... .. Minister of industry, energy and tourism has not raised any proposal to the Council of Ministers, or what is the same, he has practiced on purpose legal insubordination breach the provisions of a royal decree.
On May 20, Mr. Soria announced us in the Senate Energy Committee at the end of June 2013 would have approved the royal decree of consumption, but again nothing.
Subsequently on 18 July last year the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Energy sent its draft royal decree on the meager subsistence National Energy Commission for its mandatory report prior to its approval by the Council of Ministers; in that light was given to draft a substitute for net balance schedule, everything is left between 9 and 9:30 am can be leveraged between 9.30 and 10 am, and it is lost; and it was announced toll backup by solar energy generated and self-consumed instantaneously without any time tread on the power grid.
The report of the CNE was devastating, the toll backup is inappropriate and discriminatory.
In this opinion he was joined by the Court of Defense of Competition, and if that were not enough even Forbes magazine published an article making fun of the occurrences of our minister.
But ultimately, it's been a year and nothing at all .... if something good happened and also relevant.
On August 3, 2013 to approve the Ministerial Order IET1491 / 2013 by the structure of tolls for access to networks was modified, and the balance of the term energy and power term was changed in the final price paid the consumer;exaggeratedly increase (over 100% in some rates) the fixed term of power and significantly reducing the energy term .... Consequently from that time energy savings were less profitable, or in other words, the consumption was less attractive, particularly by way of example the impact to domestic customers has been that savings have dwindled by 17%.
And why do I tell you all this?
Because I reaffirm that the minister not think I have any need to pass a toll back when it has already damaged the consumption by modifying tolls (even I could re-do and nobody could object), and also prevents EU reprimand for violating the European Directive on energy efficiency.
In short, the toll back there, and I doubt (as I said in September) that will ever exist.
And anyway, if he were to ever exist, which itself must be clear that it will not for the 25 or 30 year life of the project, and consequently the term ROI calculation should not contemplating their existence to Throughout the life of the project ... it would be unreal.
So today, if you want to install a kit of consumption in your houses or larger in your company it themselves, all the stepsare perfectly reflected in the Royal Decree 1699/2011:
Request connection point to the distribution company.
Building permit application to the Council.
Installing a bidirectional counter (once the work or installation).
Count verification by the power company.
Registration of the facility as energy production.
Signing a contract for the sale of surplus representative (energy trader).
The procedure I can assure you it is not simple, and carries his time, and also you can see that there is no distinction between those who want to install one panel in your house and you want to install 500 panels in your company ... this pushes inexorably to consumers Pets not legalize their facilities.
A kit consumption of 245 W costs € 432 VAT included , and if you follow the procedure legalization could cost around 1,600 € VAT included.
Technical report to request connection point: 250 €
Changing counter: 700 € (equipment and installation)
Verification utility: 600 €.
Registration in the Register of producers: 50 €
What would you do in your case? To legalize the installation? I confess I do not know any domestic consumer you have your installation properly legalized .... kWh black marketeers are here !!
Obviously at company level it is very different, and it is recommended legalizing, although as we have been expecting, so many fears and hoaxes launched, the vast majority of companies do not want to undertake any investment in case .... Why if what? What the bloody toll heavy support !!
And finally, does it make sense to install injection systems 0 at home so that the utility does not detect us our solar panel to avoid uns fine of 60 million Euros? First things first:
If I fined 60 million Euros, not pay ... I think. if 3,000 fine me then I would I'll have to ask.
The new Law 24/2013 on the Electricity Sector fines from 6 million to 60 million Euros, with a ceiling of 10% of the turnover of the offender, to those consumers who fail to register their installation in the Registry of consumption.And it tells us that the penalty is proportionate to the damage caused. What harm can my kit of 245 W?
The royal decree should regulate their own consumption there !!!! Ergo can not register anything, and also the registry does not exist.
Are they programmed the new digital meters to account surplus to the network? I am convinced that there, and accountants who are not smart, and I say no.
And by the way, Law 24/2013 also provides for the suspension of supply (Article 52) in the case of a solar installation have unregistered consumption.
So far the situation as it stands today, the toll back there and I can not fined 60 million Euros ... whatever it may say otherwise have a fabulous media effect, but truthfully and pinch of fear paralysis a sector that is suffering enough.
|Why backup toll is inappropriate and discriminatory? - 16/12/2014
On Thursday October 31 takes place in the full House of Representatives debate on amendments for the Draft Electricity Act ; future law should order the Spanish electricity market and that the Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism presented as the magic and definitive solution to the popular (and never better, not for nothing was Rodrigo Rato who coined this term in 2002) tariff deficit .... I wish I was this the definitive and final problem, although I fear that the focus there, only it is a short-term solution that will not solve, even remotely, the real problems of the sector, among them, the inefficient system Price matching generation market and the lack of transparency and objectivity in the allocation of costs on the regulated distribution business, two mechanisms that have much to do with the much maligned tariff deficit.
However, today's article does not devote to solving the mysterious question of the deficit, but the issue of consumption and particularly to discuss the admissibility of the also popular (bad luck that we have with these inventions so popular !!!) toll backing proposed by Mr. Soria, which will be discussed tomorrow as a significant part of the articles of the bill ... and if there are any MP in this room, I beg you to take into consideration my comments.
And it is precisely in Article 9, paragraph 3, dedicated to consumption, it is where you can glimpse the ministry will introduce this toll backup:
" 3. All consumers in all forms of consumption will be required to contribute to the costs and system services for the self-consumed power when installing or consumer generation is wholly or partially connected to the electrical system.
To do so will be required to pay the same toll network access, charges related to system costs and costs for the provision of support services of q system ue corresponding to a non-consuming subject to any of the modes of consumption described in the preceding paragraph. "
I wanted to transcribe the proposed, because after reading it repeatedly, text interpret inconsistencies or inconsistencies in his written ... .. on one hand we talk about the costs and contribute to system services for the self-consumed energy, ie for energy instantly generated and consumed without any foreign territory electron step, read distribution network; but instead, on the other hand to autoconsumidores is obliged to pay the same tolls and charges to other consumers who have no facility consumption and therefore do not pay toll endorsement, ergo ... we then pay this backup toll?
Imagine it will be for the rush and the will of unsuspecting catch us and cause confusion, but the truth is that the wording leaves much, but much to be desired ... please review it and aclárense with what they want to legislate, we're playing the bread of many families.
Therefore we must be very vigilant on Thursday, to how this debate develops amendments to the Bill, to be known as reads the article in question, and we can expect the consumption in the coming months.
Recall that in this sense, both the Socialist Group, UPyD, IU and CiU have already announced amendments to the full, and I imagine that other groups are on the way.
Semantic, literary transcription and confusion outside, which is common knowledge, because Mr. Alberto Nadal, Secretary of State for Energy, and has been arguing in his most recent public appearances, is the willingness of the Government to establish the toll backup; but is it really coming back this toll? Who should pay system support?
Have no doubt, system support, and has always been, it corresponds sufragarlo consumers for the energy consumed, not by the energy saved !!!
Thus consumers have always paid the back of the system if you ever decide to start consuming more than usual or in other words, to cover the variability in consumer demand, and thus ensure the availability of power mainly guarantee gas plants that are available to operate. And how consumers pay this toll backup?
Our power term supply contract.
The fixed term contract recognizes the right of consumers to sue in total contracted power given time. Consequently the autoconsumidores continue to pay 100% of the contracted power to consume as collateral, in the absence of sunlight, the total contracted power that allows them to fully meet their energy needs.
On the other hand let us not forget that recently, by posting the IET1491 / 2013 , there was a major change in the structure of access charges that led to very significantly increase the value of the capacity, precisely on the grounds that it was necessary, cover all the fixed costs of the electricity system .... so the argument that if the whole world autoconsumiera no fixed system costs would be covered, lacks all foundation.
The ITC / 3127/2011 Order regulates the service availability of power capacity payments, specifically defined literally " theservice availability as the provision System Operator (OS) of all or part of power a number of production facilities, in particular, those production facilities thermal power of registered ordinary regime in the First Section of the Administrative Register of Production Facilities Electricity, which may not be available at peak periods of the system lack of compensation for this concept to be marginal technologies in the daily market, ie, the central fuel oil, the combined-cycle and coal, and also those hydraulic systems of pure pumped, mixed pumping and reservoir. "
Well, these capacity payments are borne by the consumer in the price of energy that is traded every hour in the generation market, in particular for 2012, and as shown in the following OMIE chart , had a value 6.10 € / MWh traded in the generation market, or what is the same, about 10% of the daily market price.
Therefore, if consumers who have always paid this concept for the energy consumed, why now you want to change the rules and penalize toll autoconsumidores with support from the energy saved? What if back pay toll consumers who reduce their demand by implementing energy efficiency measures? Not a good solar energy efficiency measure?
It is not unreasonable to assert that toll approval backup, would a, not quantitative conceptual level triplicate pay system support, via first power term, then via capacity payments, and finally via toll back ... almost nothing right?
If we are so concerned for system support why it is not accepted and legalized the installation of batteries that allow for support for solar systems when there is sufficient solar output? A no !!! That can not be ... that here power would gain nothing.
Why you must pay toll backup generation facilities by consumption, not the conventional generation? They did not sometimes stop working? It is much more likely to support from other gas stations in the event of a production plant operating normally fail, as in the case of the unavailability corresponding to a solar consumption of much needed size reduced.
I fear but that analyzed the question, the right question should be, is it justifiable that the consumption has to give back to gas plants built by private companies under poor planning and a market context of liberalized generation?
And is that the following data are telltale ... the installed power in Spain in late 2012, according to data from REE reached the 100,800 MW, of which 25% corresponded to combined cycle gas. Observe now as the demand was covered in the hour of greatest consumption in the whole year 2012:
Consequently we can see that at the time of peak demand (between 43.000- 50.000 MW instant approximately), only 23% of this was covered with combined cycles, or in other words, were left out of the schedule approximately 12,500 MW combined cycle ... .¿ to see if the target final toll will support combined cycle compensate for bad atino when planning your investments? .... I do not think, do not you ?, or maybe you?
It is for all these reasons that we can confirm and sign the diagnosis of the former National Energy Commission and the National Competition Commission, when mandatory reports concluded that the toll backup is unfair not match the costs They want to be accused, and discriminatory because it penalizes certain forms of energy savings compared to other as could be the replacement of LED's, discriminating between different forms of energy savings that consumers can choose.
We leave it here, but not before re-emphasize the importance of the debate for discussion of amendments that will take place tomorrow in Congress, do not miss it !!And especially Article 9, in which we will be playing a very important evolution of the solar sector over the coming months part. May the light be with us ...
And today as an exceptional case let an addendum to the article, I regret sincerely and accompany the feeling to the families of the six miners killed yesterday in Pola de Gordon (Castilla y Leon), I was struck by extremely know the personal stories of each of them, which unfortunately ...
Please anyone tache me opportunistic, but, gentlemen of the government, how many lives we continue to put at risk thanks to its commitment to domestic coal ?, What sense does it continue to support indigenous energy source, but expensive, inefficient, polluting and also threatening the quality of life and even, sometimes the lives of thousands of families? Why not spend the effort and money spent to convert a sector that whether or if, should disappear by 2018 as mandated by the European Union? Please do not miss the chance and we lead change .... a prosperous and sustainable future is possible for the coal industry.
|What can happen to me if consumption at home? - 16/12/2014
What can happen to me if I consumption at home?
Just a few weeks ago I spoke of my concern for some false truths that unfortunately, due to the inaction of the electrical logic oligopoly and government on one side, and the innocent will magnify things by solar advocates consumption the other, have now become almost universal truths that have blown completely the will of thousands of consumers who saw the solar consumption the possibility of containing somewhat dramatic upward trend in the price of electricity we have suffered over last five years.
In this sense I illustrated what happened over the past year with the toll of support, a kind of tax on consumption, almost one year after its proclamation still not adopted, but instead has effectively shut down almost completely the development of new projects for fear that one day he can finish approving ...
Imagine to what lengths false truth has arrived, a few weeks one administrative agency such as the Cabildo de Tenerife, even makes formally requested their removal although not yet exist ...
This week I want to address another major fears surrounding the solar consumption, which refers to the possible consequences of installing a kit without legalizing domestic consumption. Is it true that I can be punished with a fine of € 60 million? Can I be cut off supplies? Is it justified the terrible fear installing a solar consumption at home?
First of all I want to note that the aim of this article is not intended at any time, or defend, or promote illegal facilities is pursued only report based way of the possible consequences without entering into value judgments of any kind.
First things first ....
1. Should I legalize my installation of household solar consumption?
Flatly if, unless you want to become a black marketeer kWh as do 99% of citizens domestic consumption kit for your home purchase.
2. Why do the vast majority of people subsistence kit is installed at home does not legalize your facility?
The reasoning is simple; the cost of processing and legalization associated with the installation of a simple kit of consumption, is about more expensive than the cost of the kit itself 200%.
250 W kit Price: about 450 €
Cost of legalization according to RD1699 / 2011: approximately 1,300 €
1. Order a technical report to request the point of connection to the electricity company (even if I want to connect to a power house): 300 €
2. Ask for a building permit to the City: in most municipalities there is bonficación 95% of the ICIO, so I do not know the cost.
3. Install a bidirectional meter to compute the energy exported 450 €
4. To request the power company checking and verification of measuring equipment: 500 €.
5. Insert the installation in the Registry of Subsistence is not yet in force: € 50
Do you understand now why people do not legalize their facilities?
And that's not counting the possible mandatory instalarr a second counter for solar production when the regulatory development of the Law 24/2013 regulated.
3. Am I can avoid all those costs?
In some regions the Sub-Directorates General of Industry have approved procedures to legalize such facilities under theLow Voltage Electrotechnical Regulations ITC-BT-40 , but in this case a device is required to prevent and certifying that does not occur injection of solar surplus to the grid. The cost of such equipment may be around € 600-800.
In addition to launch the installation must submit a draft wing power company, so the final cost of this alternative route is quite comparable to that discussed in the previous section.
4. What can happen if I do not legalize my installation as none of the two options proposed?
In accordance with paragraph 4 of Article 9 of Law 24/2013:
"4. Consumers welcomed the modalities of consumption of electricity will be required to enroll in the administrative record consumption of electricity, created for this purpose in the Ministry of Industry, Energy and Tourism. "
Therefore, the obligation to register my installation of consumption in the corresponding record is clear, and consequently this means legalizing the previous installation .... the problem is that today still is not regulated this procedure.
5. What if I choose not to enroll in the register my installation?
Article 64 classified as very serious non-registration:
"43. Regarding consumption, the breach of the obligation to register and the implementation modalities or regimes not expressly provided in this Act and its implementing regulations, as well as breach of any of the technical requirements applicable to the different consumption patterns when disturbances affecting the quality of supply in the field of network you are connected took place. "
6. What sanctions have very serious infringements?
According to Article 67, we see that:
"1. The offenses set out in Chapter I of this title shall be punished as follows:
a) For committing the very serious violations of the offender by not less fine to be imposed amount not more than 6,000,001 euros to 60,000,000 euros . (...)
2. In any case the amount of the penalty may not exceed 10 percent of the annual net amount of the turnover of the offender , or 10 percent of the annual net amount of the consolidated turnover of the parent company group to which the company, as appropriate. (...)
3. If, because of the circumstances, to appreciate a qualified diminution of the culpability of the offender or the illegality of the act, or if in view of the economic situation of the offender, because of their heritage, their income, their loads family and other personal circumstances that are accredited, proves manifestly disproportionate sanction, the sanctioning body may determine the amount of the fine by applying the relevant class or classes of offenses in severity scale preceding the one in which the considered integrated in the case in question. "
Consequently I think we can assert that it is not true in any way we can punish € 60 million to connect kit without legalizing domestic consumption, because without doubt the serious punishment of all proportion.
7. Can I be cutting off the supply to have connected a kit without legalizing consumption?
Precisely this is another not trivial issues, which fear possible autoconsumidores; and in this sense Article 52 of Law 24/2013 which regulates the suspension of power supply to consumers, does not provide in any of its sections, the suspension of supply by having connected facility without legalizing consumption.
In the light of this review of the legislation applicable to today, my personal perception that I would hire with your views, it has been magnified and dramatized very disproportionately, the possible consequences of a simple kit installed consumption.
|What factors affect the performance of a solar panel? - 29/08/2014
We review the major factors affecting the performance of photovoltaic systems. A photovoltaic system produces energy in proportion to the intensity of sunlight at the surface of the photovoltaic panel. But the solar yield can vary substantially. There are other factors that affect the performance of solar power system. These factors must be understood so that the client has realistic expectations about the benefits of the system in times of changing climate. Consider these factors one by one:
Standard test conditions: Solar modules produce DC power.The performance of solar modules is determined by the manufacturer in a standard conditions (STC or Standard Test Conditions). Conditions are cell temperature 25 ° C;solar irradiance (intensity) = 1000 W / m2 (often referred to as light intensity peak, and is comparable to the intensity for a summer afternoon. A manufacturer that ranks the performance of a solar module 100 W low energy conditions STC, Gabrica a module with a production tolerance of +/- 5%. That means that the module will produce 95 105 wa w.
Temperature: The power module is reduced as the temperature increases. When operating on a roof, the module will heat up substantially, reaching inside temperature values ranging from 50 to 75 ° C. Thus, for crystalline modules, a reduction factor of typical temperature recommended by the CEC (California Energy Commission) is 89% or 0.89. Thus a typical 100 watt module operate at about 85 w (95 wx 0.89 = 85 watts) at noon one day in spring or autumn, under good lighting conditions.
Coupling losses and wiring: The maximum power supplied by a photovoltaic panel is always the sum of the maximum output of the individual modules. This difference is a result of slight inconsistencies in performance of a module and the next called decoupling energy causes a loss of 2% in the system. It also loses by the resistance in the wiring. These losses must be minimized by applying proper procedures, but it is difficult to get down 3%.
DC conversion losses AC : Power Conversion DC / AC or vice versa always generates losses. Some manufacturers talk about peak efficiencies of 92-94%, but new investors as measured under controlled conditions. In practice it is common to find 88%, although the time of use and characteristics of each investor can generate a conversion efficiency of 80% in many cases. The approach often used in the calculations is 90% or 0.90.
SOURCE: All Productivity.
Bibliography : A guide to photovoltaic (PV) system design and installation. California Energy Commission. Energy Technology Development Division
|Grupo Elektra makes the first official formation of Lorentz pumps in Spain, where Enersolma Sl involved, becoming an official partner Lorentz. - 04/06/2014
20 and May 21 took place at the premises of energema (Grupo Elektra), the first official formation of the Lorentz solar pumps in Spain.
This course technical level and limited capacity, was a success of participation by quantity, but especially for the quality of the participants. At the end of the event he presented the diplomas that accredit them as qualified to size, install and service the products Lorentz companies was made. This certification is one of the requirements to become official partner Lorentz.
In this first training was attended by Katia Lovon (Lorentz) I travel exclusively from Germany to support this event.
|The Government approves aid for companies that install solar energy - 09/04/2014
Efe. Palma The Ministry of Economy has approved a call for subsidies intended for companies and business associations who install solar photovoltaic and wind power consumption.
With this new edition, the Government wants to boost the private sector to incorporate these sources of renewable energy in its facilities by the economic savings that self-generation of electricity and for the reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) entails. Economy estimates that the amount of 500,000 euros, 50% financed with Feder funds will generate an induced investment of 1.5 million euros.
For the general director of Industry and Energy, Jaume Ochogavía, the call for aid "is good news for the sector and can encourage the installation of these projects."
The deadline for applications ends on May 7. They may support new facilities for consumption to a maximum installed capacity of 100 kilowatts. In the case of companies, the amount of aid is up to 35% of installation costs at a rate of 1.50 euros per watt in the case of photovoltaic generation, and 3 euros in wind. In the case of business associations can subsidize up to 45% of installation costs at a rate of one euro per watt photovoltaic and three euros in wind.
The total amount of the grant will allow the installation of 900 kWh of power, which in annual terms equivalent to 1,350,000 kWh of energy and avoid the emission of 1,300 tons of CO2 into the atmosphere.
|How can we energetically classify buildings? - 20/11/2013
There are many questions that arise homeowners in relation to energy classification edificios.Para resolve these doubts nothing better than an example of an action concerning the building envelope, through which clarify how it might affect rehabilitation specifically in a home with a specific location:
Rehabilitation of facade Madrid apartment block in 24 homes over 6 floors (600 m2 per floor)
Facade insulation level: NBE-CT-79 (building regulations 1979) + simple glass Caldera oil (yield 85% nominal and seasonal average yield: 65.5%)
With these features the building in question presents a classification F.
If they make improvements to the front, so that it suits the marked demands for new housing from 2007 (Technical Building Code 2007), the windows are replaced by double glass + frame with thermal break, an energy classification is achieved E.
The investment required to rehabilitate facades energy can range between 6,000 € € / housing (if isolated only the facade) and 10,000 € / housing (whether facade, holes and cover is rehabilitated).
In this case, if you opted for a replacement of the heating system, investing, around € 3,000, it could be a 31% reduction in heating consumption (compared to 34% in the case of rehabilitating only the facade)
-Classification Energy. Division and energy savings which must be reached for each letter.
The scale of energy efficiency in buildings ranging from the letter A to G:
You need to understand the concept of classification, and based on what criteria are the boundaries defined between letters that give the energy classification (C1 and C2 parameters).
The scale of energy classification is based on CO2 emissions (C1 and C2) and are the result of the division between the emissions of the building in question and a building of similar characteristics and which meet either the requirements for the Technical Code building (buildings constructed after the entry into force of the CTE 2007), or existing buildings, in which case the reference corresponds to average values of emissions related to existing buildings and building-like object characteristics.
As you can see it is extremely difficult to translate values and energy savings between letters, because it depends on the type of building, year of construction, location, etc.
As an example may provide data class boundaries for qualifying demand and emissions of houses of houses located on Madrid.
An example of interpretation is that if a home with these characteristics up emits 75 kgCO2 / m2 (is then letter F) and able to reduce them to 65 kgCO2 / m2 has reached the point E.
These tables are different for each location, even if the house is detached, block or a tertiary building.
- Energy cost of an average home in Spain in year kWh / euros
1.- Total Average household consumption: 0.852 tep
2. Middle Consumption by Type of Housing
and Family: 1,334 tep
or Floor: 0.649 tep
3. Electricity Consumption Median Household: 3,487 kWh
Download HERE draft Royal Decree approving the basic procedure for certifying the energy efficiency of buildings is approved.
|What is LED Lighting? - 29/08/2013
What is LED lighting ?
An LED ( Lighting Emitting Diode) is a semiconductor diode capable of emitting light . For many years it has been used in various devices , especially buttons to indicate states such as the buttons on a DVD recording or by color indicate whether the unit is on (green ) or off ( red).
The first LED was developed in 1927 by Oleg Vladimirovich Losev but it was not until the sixties when it began to be used in industry. Since then progress has happened and from the first LEDs that you could only build in red , green or yellow and low light intensity we have moved to new that can provide enough white light to illuminate a room .
Physical functioning LED
The operation of an LED is that an electron to move from the conduction band to the valence , loses energy which manifests as a photon ( elementary particle responsible for any quantum ) detached , with an amplitude , direction and phase random .
And colors ? LED light is monochromatic and depends on the semiconductor material used . As he got to the emitted light is red , blue, violet , ... To get different shades of color , considering the detail of being monochromatic light , what we do is to use the combination between them and the use of different intensities.
This way to get white light can mix the light of three LEDs, one blue , one red and finally green . That, more or less that the colors as RGB color space .
Regarding the amount of light depends on the intensity of electric current though here
There are several points to consider for those who talk later
Already discussed not long ago but it never hurts to mention them again . And, compared to incandescent bulbs are a great improvement but also halogen lights .
Energy efficiency with a consumption of up to 85 % less electricity .
Longer life can offer about 45,000 hours of use .
Greener light . Not only to save energy but by the chemicals that form. None of tungsten or mercury and other toxic products.
Low heat and minimal maintenance. Energy efficiency causes minimal
Heat emission caused by energy waste to get the desired light output incandescent bulbs.
Led bulbs Types
Are all LED bulbs the same?
When we go to a dealer to buy an LED bulb can find such a wide range in models that can get confused . And the worst is that , in addition to multiple
models there are also large differences in price.
How to know which LED bulb is better or just more desirable ? We'll tell you from our own experience.
In shops can find models that use few LEDs, between 3 and 5, or using a large number , about twenty or even more. Say which is better or worse is difficult because it depends on several factors.
The first LED quality . An LED emits more light depends on the amount of active material (material that converts electricity into photons) was used. According to have more or less the price of LED is more expensive and the direct involvement of the bulb.
To avoid using high density LEDs , more expensive , some manufacturers is that they include 12, 20 or more LEDs in its inferior bulbs . Of course, this entails several problems. If they are placed in series, the failure of one of the following fail so the bulb life is reduced.
Also if you apply too much energy to get the same light as the high density LED bulb deteriorates before seeing the light emitted drops considerably . Being able to go to 50 % of the light emitted originally , instead of 70 % which would fall near the end of its life cycle , some 45000 hours. Finally , the heat generated is higher so if the dissipation is not good stop working faster.
So bad bulbs with multiple LEDs? Otherwise, provided that the LEDs are of quality .
Manufacturers are placed a large number of LEDs quality ( high-density LED ) lamps in their force less then each further extending their service life. Therefore achieve the same light with a few LEDs with the higher applied electric current .
In summary, the LED light bulb is dependent on the quality of LEDs used and the intensity of the current applied .
What LED bulb to buy?
Well some would say the most expensive. True, part of why we are missing but there are some details
more and also a high price assures optimum performance. What we must do is buy bulbs known manufacturers : Philips , LG , Samsung , Osram , Sylvania , Bridgelux , Toshiba , ... You can opt for some shopping on eBay Chinese sellers . The problem is the time and if they stop at customs package eventually you will come to a similar price.
Then , although the LED lights emit less heat is important that you have a good
dissipation system . Watching the finish of the bulb itself can appreciate
quickly. Is this sink , the internal electronics and LED quality which makes prices between a priori models offer a similar amount of light are so disparate .
Currently major manufacturers are betting on bulbs 3 to 5 high intensity LEDs that provide a light similar to halogen practically equivalent.
LED Bulbs , voltages and different types of caps
As in halogen bulbs you can find LED bulbs work
directly connected to a 220V power or needing an intermediate transformer for operating at 12V . It is important to know what type of bulb we have in each of the rooms in which we decided to change the type of illumination .
Then we have to look for the LED bulb with the appropriate cap , which can be from the E27 which is threaded typical smaller sizes as used by E14 or GU10 halogen or as the dichroic halogen GU3.5 .
It is important to note that, if we are to use bulbs that operate at 12V , the
transformers are in good condition to avoid an energy expenditure that do not offset the savings that allows the LED and especially I generated temperature as it could affect the life of the bulb. Similarly, in some cases several bulbs can connect to the same transformer.
Meanwhile manufacturers recommend replacing these transformers for a more suitable or even remove the bulb and is who is responsible for converting the DC current .
As you can see not all LED bulbs are equal. LED quality , if high density or not , as well as other aspects such as the number that includes dissipation mechanism , etc .... significantly affect the final price. Yet initial investment reaches profitability.
If now you are wondering how to choose the perfect LED bulb for power and angle of the projected light , easy. That will be the next topic to be discussed .
How to choose the correct LED bulb for every need.
The light output
One lumen is the unit used to express the amount of light that is capable of generating a light bulb.
The problem is that the lack of binding by manufacturers can not unify so we can have some problems . Anyway, the theory tells us that an LED is able to generate on its own between 60 and 90 lumens. Any value above or is fake or low optimal circumstances . As data, the record generated by an LED lumens was 150 lm / w . For Lumens LED bulb generates a little formula exists : .
Actual lumens = the number of watts x 70 .
Being 70 an average value that matches most of the bulbs on the market. Therefore, a 12W LED bulb offer a light output of 840 lm . That would replace the light that generates a 60W incandescent bulb . As you can see generating the same amount of light each bulb save incandescent 48w us to substitute
The opening angle of the light
One of the problems that LED lighting is the opening angle offered. This forces us to look good and uses specifications recommended by the manufacturer .
The good thing is that the optical technology used in the LED has improved so much that we can find lamps capable of illuminating an entire room by themselves .
If we buy LED bulbs whose opening angle is 40 ° we get a more focused light would be ideal to illuminate specific points as a box , cabinet, etc. .. So for a room we need to get a light bulb with 120 degree opening is suitable for rooms. Yes, perhaps we will have to use more than one if the dimensions are larger than normal .
The color temperature
The Kelvin indicate the kind of color that will light our lamp. Depending on how many we can get three types of light : warm white, pure white and cool white .
Each color tends to have a more or less practical .
The cool white is ideal for installing in places where you need a white light and that light as possible such as the garage, ...
Pure white is suitable for use in bathrooms, kitchen or workplace.
tone light yellow, warm white, is suitable for bedrooms, living room, etc. as it offers a kind of light over temperature.
When we go to buy a bulb can check the temperature in degrees Kelvin to know what kind of light will . If the environment is warm white 3000K , 4500K is pure white and cool white 5800K .
Since each decide what kind of light you would most like for long stay where you go to use it. Also interesting is the use of the dimmer to create the atmosphere to regulate the intensity and therefore the amount of light generated by the bulb.
However, for taste there is nothing written , and each will choose light tone you like.
Not everyone has the same installation home lighting . Some use incandescent , fluorescent or halogen other . It is important to review our installation and informed us about how much we can reuse and what would be better to change .
In the case of some halogen lamps is important to check processors. First, because of a transformer maybe we can "hang " several LED bulbs to get the 50 , 60 or more watts offering to feed the new LEDs consume only 10 or 12W per bulb. Second, because it's still better to remove and place a bulb LEDs which are connected directly to the network of 220V .
Similarly if we dimmer is very important that our LED bulb is compatible, for it in the box usually indicated by the word DIMMABLE
|The Government will finance the installation of solar panels in Councils and Municipalities. - 22/08/2013
PALMA DE MALLORCA, Aug 22 (EUROPA PRESS). -
The Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness subsidize solar PV installations up to 100 kW for consumption in the buildings of the Island Councils, Councils and local children.
As reported by the department in a statement, the new facilities to be financed by the ERDF, must have a minimum power of 2 kW. In addition, the amendments also subsidize the already completed to connect them in solitary consumption to the public power grid facilities.
This action follows a previous in secondary schools and occurs in parallel to another call for the installation of solar panels in schools and Primary. "If the case of the schools was intended, among other things, that children are aware that their schools are respectful of the environment, this initiative is to make the various public administrations set an example to citizens in application of renewable energy in buildings and public spaces, "said the Minister of Economy and Competitiveness, Joaquin Garcia.
To qualify for the aid, actions must meet the eligibility criteria for operational programs of the Operational Regional Development funds.
The economic cost of this call is 500,000 euros and will go to the budget of 2014. Balearic annual allocation is binding for the full amount and not every item. It also provided the available budget allows, you can increase the amount of this call without implying an extension of the deadline for applications, which ends in 30 days.
Investments subject of this application should be run and pay in the period set by the resolution of concession, which shall not exceed the October 31, 2014.
Regarding the amount of aid, 50% of the budgeted cost of the new facility without exceeding the value of 1.80 euros per Wp and 100% of the modification of already completed facilities will be subsidized. Applications will be resolved jointly and according to the order of entry.
Thus, the Government meets the objectives of the Energy Sector Master Plan of the Balearic Islands, which establishes as a priority the planning of actions to supply the future energy demand in each of the islands and the promotion of savings and rationalization the use of energy in each of the economic sectors in order to minimize as much as possible the increase of energy demand.
SOURCE; EUROPE PRESS.
|Economy / energy.- IU-ICV proposes that the consumption for recovering free for 12 months excesses discharges to the network - 19/08/2013
MADRID, Aug 19 (EUROPA PRESS). -
The Plural Left (IU-ICV-CHA) registered for debate in the House of Congress, a proposition of law that requests the Government to boost the energy consumption with net balance by regulating for recovering excess production poured into the network without paying anything for it for twelve months, and no tolls for the self-consumed energy.
The initiative of the deputy Laia Ortiz, which includes Europe Press, part of the premise that would promote the consumption and reduce emissions and improve the trade balance by reducing energy dependence, creating 5,700 direct jobs in five years with a volume of 400 MW installed annually, according to estimates by the Platform for the Promotion of Distributed Energy Generation and Subsistence.
In addition, the state would get some returns generated by economic activity and tax --recaudación desempleo-- savings of 300 million euros, "besides avoiding the disbursement of more than 130 million energy imports," added the Catalan deputy.
FOR CONSUMERS DOMESTIC AND SMEs
Therefore, IU-ICV-CHA proposes the Government to develop the regulation of consumption net balance for domestic consumers and small businesses, and raises the possibility that this legislation enables the consumer to "give surplus power produced by generating a royalty deferred consumption for a period of twelve months ".
In addition, Ortiz asked not access fees for self-consumed energy imposed and for which it is exchanged, take into account the capacity installed by the user and applied increasingly in time, "depending on the maturity technologies, in order to ensure adequate profitability and a progressive implementation ".
"In any case, these tolls will allow and encourage the implementation of energy consumption," says the deputy, adding that the fee for energy is taken from the network and is not self-generate should be "the same" with the rest consumers without photovoltaic systems.
The Plural Left also calls for the Government to work to eliminate "all red tape" for the installation of renewable energy production, and accused of having caused a "slowdown" in the development of solar energy with its "successive" changes regulatory, that caused that Spain "has lost the leadership" in the sector.
"Current administrative impediments are favoring electric and gas companies, as the system is designed only for companies selling electricity to the network but is enormously complicated administratively electricity production to consumption for a particular" complains Laia Ortiz.
SOURCE; EUROPE PRESS
|Energy Class in buildings. - 24/04/2013
The Spanish government approved early April the Royal Decree 235/2013 approving the basic procedure for certifying the energy efficiency of buildings is approved.
The royal decree established from June 1, 2013 the obligation to make available to buyers or renters of property a certificate must include objective information on energy efficiency of buildings . Also they should include benchmarks and minimum requirements for energy efficiency.This buyers or renters of a home can compare and assess its energy performance.
This Royal Decree, which is a result of the implementation of Directive 2010/13 / EU of the European Parliament and the Council, aims to encourage the promotion of more energy efficient speaking homes as well as to promote the adoption of efficiency measures and energy saving .
And since 2007 it is required to certify the energy efficiency of new buildings, but with this new rule, the obligation to conduct an energy efficiency audit also already built properties that wish to sell or rent is ample.
The rule will affect both private homes, offices or business premises, which are sold or leased for more than four months period , which shall perform an energy audit by qualified personnel. In this it must provide objective data and classify the level of energy efficiency through letters ranging from A (most efficient) to G (least efficient)
This measure is already in force in many countries in Europe in which estate agents can be seen in their windows seal efficiency of each particular home that allows customers consider this aspect in the whole house.
Similarly, in Spain, from June 1, estate agents must show both in their offices and in their websites or publications data efficiency of buildings who offer. In case of default, the legislation provides for sanctions up to $ 3,000 for homeowners.
You can view the Royal Decree 235/2013 here
|Circular Govern de les Illes Balears on Autoconsumo Photovoltaic. - 16/04/2013
Circular Govern de les Illes Balears on Photovoltaic Autoconsumo.
Circular of the Director General of Industry and Energy of September 24, 2012 approving the procedure and the documentation to be submitted for processing permits and / or registrations necessary for the commissioning and connection of energy production facilities is clarified electric special regime within the scope of Royal Decree 1699/2011, of November 18, by which the grid connection of facilities producing electricity from small power is regulated, and some interpretive criteria for establishing apply uniform standards for the performance of the relevant administrative bodies in the BOE. 295 of December 8, 2011, the government published Royal Decree 1699/2011, of November 18, on the networking of production facilities of small power electricity is regulated.
Administrative procedures and technical conditions of the production facilities of electricity from small power, besides being affected by Royal Decree 1699/2011, what are the other rules, making it difficult to meet the requirements for registration, connection and commissioning in service.
The production facilities require the processing power of the generating facility to the competent body of the autonomous region, according to Royal Decree 1699/2011, Royal Decree 842/2002, of 2 August, the Council Regulation Electrical low voltage, and the Order of September 5, 1985 by which administrative and technical standards established for
operation and connection to the electricity networks of hydroelectric plants up to 5,000 kVA and self-generation power stations.
Royal Decree 1699/2011 also establishes a differentiated procedure for access and connection conditions according to the power generating facility.
On the other hand, Royal Decree 661/2007 of May 25, by which the activity of production of electrical energy in special regime, and Royal Decree 1955/2000, of 1 December, which regulates the activities of transportation, distribution, marketing, supply and authorization procedures for electric power facilities, regulate authorization procedures and registration of the activities of electricity production.
Certain items of these royal decrees have been amended by the Royal Decree 699/2011 and other regulations.
Given this dispersion law, it is necessary to clarify the procedure for dealing with the Directorate General of Industry and Energy production facilities of electricity in the special regime for small power and establish interpretive criteria of the technical condition of the facilities.
It is also considered appropriate to issue this Circular because the Royal Decree 1699/2011 attributes to the competent management body resolving complaints and disputes that may arise, making it necessary to unify criteria of interpretation, so that the relevant administrative bodies have a unifying criteria to enable a uniform interpretation of the
rules applicable to the subject matter of this Circular.
Article 2 of Decree 12/2011 of 18 June, the President of the Balearic Islands, the skills and the basic organizational structure of the ministries of the Administration of the CAIB established, attached to the Directorate General of Industry and Energy, integrated within the Economic Vice-Presidency, of Entrepreneurial Promotion and Employment, the exercise of powers in this matter.
Article 21 of Law 3/2003 of 26 March on the legal regime of the Administration of the CAIB states that drive higher and executive bodies and direct the administrative activities, including through circulars designed to recall the application of certain unify legal interpretation of these criteria in order to apply in the field of administrative action one provisions
Therefore, in exercise of the powers conferred on me by the Law 4/2001, of March 14, the Government of the Balearic Islands, and the Law 3/2003 of 26 March on the legal regime of the Autonomous Community of Balearic Islands issued the following
The purpose of this Circular is to clarify the procedure and the necessary documents to process the authorization and / or registration required for the commissioning and connection of production facilities of electricity in the special regime that are within the scope of Real Decree 1699/2011, of November 18, on the networking of production facilities of small power electricity is regulated and establish interpretive criteria applicable uniform standards for the performance of the relevant administrative bodies.
2. Procedure for dealing with the Directorate General of Industry and Energy a production facility of electricity in the special regime for small power Administrative, contractual, economic and basic techniques for the connection to the networks of electricity distribution conditions production facilities of electricity in the special regime of small power are established in Royal Decree 1699/2011, which differentiates two groups of facilities:
Production facilities of electricity power not exceeding 100 kW technologies referred to in categories b) and c) of Article 2 of Royal Decree 661/2007 of May 25, in either of the following two cases:
a) when connected to power lines not exceeding 1 kV distribution company, either directly or through an internal network of a consumer,
b) when connecting to the low side of a transformer of an internal network, to less than 1 kV voltage, consumers connected to the distribution network and provided that the installed capacity of generaciónconectada to the internal network does not exceed 100 kW . Production facilities of electricity power not exceeding 1,000 kW of technologies covered by category a) and b.6 subgroups b.8 b.7 and Article 2 of Royal Decree 661/2007 of 25 May connecting to power lines not exceeding 36 kV distribution company, either directly or through an internal network of a consumer.
Documentation and commissioning of the facilities are regulated by the Instruction ITC BT 04 of Royal Decree 842/2002 of 2 August, amending the Regulation for Low Voltage Electrical approving and Chapter II of Royal Decree 3275 / 1982 of 12 November, on technical conditions and safety guarantees in power plants and transformer.
Furthermore, the administrative procedure to include a production plant for electricity in the special regime is regulated in Chapter II of Royal Decree 661/2007 of May 25, by which the activity of production of electricity in regulated regime Special.
According to the first additional provision, the production facilities of electricity with power not exceeding 100 kW connected directly to a network voltage not exceeding 1 kV are excluded from the system of prior administrative authorization.
Given the dispersion of the legislation applicable to these procedures and in order to clarify and unify their application, indicate that the procedure for the processing of power generation facilities is specified in paragraphs, differentiated according to the category to they belong, the power and voltage that connect.
2.1 Procedure for processing power installations exceeding 10 kW and not more than 100kW, technologies referred to in categories a) b) c) Article 2 of Royal Decree 661/2007 of May 25, connected to voltage not exceeding 1kV
2.1.1. Request for access and connection to the distribution company:
1. The promoter request the right to access, point and technical connection to the distribution company, and must accompany the application of the following information:
a) Name, address, telephone or other means of contact.
b) specific location installation of electricity production, including the cadastral reference.
c) Single-line diagram of the installation.
d) Item proposed to connect. UTM coordinates and / or the number of CUPS, if the applicant knows, and the proposed location of the measuring point according to the unified measurement points of the electrical system, approved by Royal Decree 1110/2007 Regulation include, of August 24, and the implementing regulations.
e) Owner of the property where the facility is located.
f) Statement of the property owner responsible in giving compliance to the request for connection point, if different from the applicant.
g) description of the installation, technology used and techniques of this, including the nominal peak power and the installation will include features, methods of connection and, where appropriate, characteristics of the investor or investors, a description of protection devices and connection elements provided, as well as certificates of compliance with emission and immunity levels, referred to Article 16 of Royal Decree 1699/2011.
h) Proof of having deposited the appropriate guarantee before the body of the Administracióncompetente, except for the autonomous administration and its instrumental bodies.
According to Article 66a of Royal Decree 1955/2000, as amended by the first of Royal Decree 1699/2011 disposal, this guarantee shall consist of an amount of 20 € / kW and deposited with the Economic Vice President, Business Promotion and Employment.
Whereas the Royal Decree 1955/2000, 1699/2011 and Royal Decree Law 52/1997 of 27 November, which regulates the legal assistance to the State and public institutions, the regional government and its instrumental bodies be exempted from this guarantee.
If additional documentation to be submitted or the applicant has not submitted all the documents listed in this section, the distribution company must apply within 10 days of receipt of the request and shall justify this request should also in the case of requesting additional documentation, the distributor must send a copy of the application, by email, to the Directorate General of Industry and Energy.
The distributor must notify the applicant at the latest within one month from the date of receipt of the application (with all the documentation referred to in this section), the technical conditions for access and connection in accordance with Article 5 of Royal Decree 1699/2011. The connection study should not in any case a cost to the applicant.
2. Within three months, the applicant must inform the distributor of the acceptance point and the proposed conditions and at the same time, we must deliver the project and program execution. In case of disagreement, the applicant may address the General Directorate of Industry and Energy, within 30 days of receipt of the proposal, for it to resolve the discrepancy and set the
conditions that the parties must respect.
Upon acceptance of the technical proposal of the distribution company, the applicant has a maximum of 15 months for installation figure entered in the register of pre-allocation or administrative Registry corresponding production facilities.
If the applicant fails to fulfill this requirement, the cancellation of the connection point will occur.
The distributor must send the developer a technical specifications and economic budget within 15 days after the project supervised favorable report, as of the record date of acceptance by the promoter. If deficiencies in project implementation, the distributor shall notify the sponsor within a maximum period of 15 days and must be given within 15 days to cure.
The technical specifications, the budget and assessment of the economic conditions of the connection is made in accordance with Article 6 of Royal Decree 1699/2011.
2.1.2. Request for public use. Should public utility requested, shall be processed in accordance with the established procedure.
2.1.3. Presentation of the technical documentation for the installation of electricity production from small power to the Directorate General of Industry and Energy and connection request from the installation to the distribution company.
1. In accordance with current regulations, once the installation is complete the applicant must submit to the General Directorate of Industry and Energy the documentation:
Application with standard procedures.
Proof of payment of the fee.
Copy the NIF / CIF of the applicant, deeds and writings of society representative, if any.
Receipt of the guarantee referred to in paragraph 2.1.1.
Report of obtaining rights and free access under Article 5 of Royal Decree 661/2007, issued by the distribution company.
Technical project, which should include the technical characteristics of the installation, the budget and economic study.
Certificate of completion of the work with the standard model.
Installation certificate using the standard form.
Certificate from investors that meet the Royal Decree 842/2002, of 2 August, amending the Low Voltage Electrical Regulations, Royal Decree 1699/2011, of 18 November, by which approves the connection is approved a network of facilities for production of electricity from small power, and all other applicable regulations.
For installations of category a) under Article 2.1, according to Royal Decree 661/2007 of May 25, by which the activity of production of electrical energy in special regime, established by accreditation Article 6 of the Royal Decree.
At the time of submitting this documentation if it is complete, the Directorate General of Industry and Energy issued a document or certificate diligence installing electricity production of small power.
2. The owner of the installation must apply and subscribe to the distributor a technical contract for access to the network for which the technical relations between them are governed. The distributor shall have a maximum of one month of the request to sign the technical access contract, provided that
he has provided the documentation. The model contract is contained in Annex III of Royal Decree 1699/2011.
Any dispute about the contract, you must solve and notify the Directorate General of Industry and Energy in a maximum period of one month from the date of the request for dispute resolution in the register of the Directorate General.
3. After completing the formalities of the previous sections, you can proceed with the installation connection. The connection request may be done along with the subscription request technical access contract mentioned in the previous section.
After notifying the distributor of the connection request, it has a maximum term of one month to connect to the network.
Once the connection is made, you can do an initial installation verification in accordance with Article 8 of Royal Decree 1699/2011. If, as a result of verification, the distributor is any incident, inform the holder for the fix. In case of disagreement, they may apply to the Directorate General of Industry and Energy the necessary inspections and resolution of the discrepancy.
The distributor must be responsible and bear the cost of the connection and the connection of production facilities to the existing distribution network, subject to regulatory compliance and security protocols.
2.1.4. Final commissioning, provision of condition facility under the special regime installation and registration in the Register of production facilities under the special regime production.
Once the distributor is connected to the network installation and distribution have made the first installation verification, the holder to apply for final commissioning and installation registration in the Register of production facilities under the special regime, so you must submit to the Directorate General of Industry and Energy the necessary documentation according to current regulations.
CHP plants intended for air conditioning and / or ACS of buildings in the Balearic Islands that are classified as category a) in accordance with Article 2 of Royal Decree 661/2007, to prove that established in Article 6.3.d) and the last paragraph of Article 6.3 of the Royal Decree, it is necessary to demonstrate compliance with the provisions of Annex I of this Resolution.
After analyzing the evidence, if it is correct, the Directorate General of Industry and Energy to authorize the final commissioning of the facility, will grant the status of production facility under the special regime and must enroll permanently in the Register of production facilities under the special regime. Otherwise, you must claim the holder to remedy the deficiencies within 10 days.
2.2 Procedure for processing power installations not exceeding 10 kW, of the technologies referred to in categories a) b) c) of Article 2 of Royal Decree 661/2007 of May 25, connected to voltage not exceeding 1 kV
2.2.1. The promoter of the facility must notify the distributor by electronic means in a reliable way or the simplified model of connection request listed in Annex II of Royal Decree 1699/2011. The request must be accompanied by a technical report of design that included the connection point and the number of CUPS the associated supply and, if the applicant is other than the holder of the supply contract, a person responsible for compliance statement supply holder to request connection point. The distributor must notify the applicant within a maximum period of 10 working days from the date of receipt of the application, acceptance of connection, the remission of an alternative proposal or refusal of the application. In case of disagreement, the holder may submit a complaint to the Directorate General of Industry and Energy, within a maximum period of one month from the date of receipt of the proposal and, within 10 days indicated above, if lack of response.
Once accepted the proposal of the distribution company, the applicant has a maximum of 15 months for installation figure entered in the register of pre-allocation or administrative Registry corresponding production facilities. If the applicant fails to fulfill this requirement is to produce the cancellation of the connection point.
2.2.2.Application for public utility
If requested public utility shall be dealt with in accordance with established procedure.
2.2.3. Presentation of the technical documentation for the installation of electricity production from small power connection and application installation.
1. In accordance with current regulations, once the installation is complete, the owner must submit to the General Directorate of Industry and Energy the following documentation:
Application with standard procedures.
Memory, technical and economic, summary of the standard model.
NIF / CIF of the applicant.
Proof of payment of the fee.
Installation certificate, the standard form.
At the time of submission of this documentation, if completed, a document or certificate diligence installing electricity production of small power issue.
2. The owner of the installation must submit to the distributor, in a reliable way or by electronic means, a connection request of the facility to which you must attach a copy of the technical contract for access to the network set out in Annex III Royal Decree 1699/2011, properly completed and signed, and a copy of the document or certificate diligence installing electricity production of small power.
The distributor has a maximum period of 10 days from receipt of the documents referred to in the preceding paragraph to formalize the contract, verify the installation and connect to the existing distribution network. If deficiencies are detected in the verification, it shall inform the operator of the plant, which must be corrected. Once corrected, the holder shall notify the distributor and must apply for a new connection. The distribution company has a period of 10 days to make the appropriate checks and make the connection.
2.2.4.Final commissioning, granting the status of production facility under the special regime installation and registration in the Register of production facilities under the special regime
installation The holder must apply for final commissioning and registration of the facility in the Register of production facilities under the special regime, and has submitted to the Directorate General of Industry and Energy the necessary documentation according to current regulations.
After analyzing the evidence, if it is correct, the Directorate General of Industry and Energy to authorize the final commissioning of the facility, will grant the status of production facility under the special regime and must enroll permanently in the Register of production facilities under the special regime. Otherwise, you must claim the holder to remedy the deficiencies within 10 days
2.3 Procedure for handling facilities above 100 kW and not more than 1000 kW of the technologies covered by category a) and subsgrups b.6) b.7) and b.8) of Article 2 of Royal Decree 661 / 2007 of May 25, which is connected to power lines not exceeding 36 kV. It also applies to facilities with power not exceeding 100 kW connected to a voltage exceeding 1kV
2.3.1. Request for access and connection to the distribution company:
1. The promoter request the right to access, point, and the technical connection to the distribution company, and must accompany the request for the following information:
a) Name, address, telephone or other means of contact.
b) specific location installation of electricity production from small power, including the cadastral reference.
c) Single-line diagram of the installation.
d) Item proposed to connect. UTM coordinates and / or the number of CUPS, if the applicant knows, and the proposed location of the measuring point according to the unified measurement points of the electrical system, approved by Royal Decree 1110/2007 Regulation include, of August 24, and the implementing regulations.
e) Owner of the property where the facility is located.
f) Statement of the property owner responsible in giving compliance to the request for connection point, if different from the applicant.
g) description of the installation, technology used and techniques of this, including the nominal peak power and installation, connection modes and, where appropriate, characteristics of the investor or investors, description of devices will include features provided protection and connection elements as well as certificates of compliance with emission and immunity levels that reference to Article 16 of Royal Decree 1699/2011.
h) Proof of having deposited the appropriate guarantee before the competent organ of the Administration, except for the autonomous administration and its instrumental bodies. According to Article 66a of Royal Decree 1955/2000, as amended by the first of Royal Decree 1699/2011 disposal, this guarantee shall consist of an amount of 20 € / kW and deposited with the Economic Vice President, Business Promotion and Employment.
Whereas the Royal Decree 1955/2000, 1699/2011 and Royal Decree Law 52/1997 of 27 November, which regulates the legal assistance to the State and public institutions, the regional government and its instrumental bodies are exempt from provide this guarantee.
If additional documentation to be submitted or the applicant has not submitted all the documents listed in this section, the distribution company must apply within 10 days of receipt of the request and shall justify this request should also in the case of requesting additional documentation, the distributor must send a copy of the request, via email, to the Directorate General of Industry and Energy.
The distributor must notify the applicant at the latest within one month from the date of receipt of the application (with all the documentation referred to in this section), the technical conditions for access and connection in accordance with Article 5 of Royal Decree 1699/2011.
The connection study should not in any case a cost to the applicant.
2. Within three months the applicant must inform the distributor of the acceptance point and the proposed conditions and at the same time, we must deliver the project and program execution. In case of disagreement the interested party may contact the General Directorate of Industry and Energy, within 30 days of receipt of the proposal, for it to resolve the discrepancy and set the
conditions that the parties must respect. Upon acceptance of the technical proposal of the distribution company, the applicant has a maximum of 15 months for installation figure registered in the
register of pre-allocation or administrative Registry corresponding production facilities. In case of breach of the applicant, the cancellation of the connection point will occur.
The distributor must send to the promoter a technical specifications and economic budget within a month, once the project is monitored with a favorable report, as of the record date of acceptance by the promoter. If deficiencies in project implementation, the distributor shall inform, within a period of 15 days, the sponsor and given a period of 15 days to cure.
The technical specifications, the budget and assessment of the economic conditions of the connection is made in accordance with Article 6 of Royal Decree 1699/2011.
2.3.2. Prior administrative authorization
In accordance with Chapter II of Royal Decree 661/2007, the owner of the installation shall obtain the prior administrative authorization before commencing the installation. The documentation to be submitted to the General Directorate of Industry and Energy is:
Application for administrative license with the standard model.
Receipt of payment of the fee.
Copy the NIF / CIF of the applicant, deeds and writings of society representative, if any.
Justification of technical and financial solvency.
Declaration responsible owner of the property where the facility is located, if different owner, which gives conformity to the request for connection point.
Draft technical project or installation.
Receipt of the guarantee referred to in paragraph 2.3.1.
Report of obtaining rights and free access under Article 5 of Royal Decree 661/2007 issued by the distribution company.
For installations of category a) provided for in Article 2.1 of Royal Decree 661/2007 of May 25, by which the activity of electricity production under the special regime, accreditation with the provisions of Article 6 of the regulated same Royal Decree.
CHP plants intended for air conditioning and / or ACS of buildings in the Balearic Islands that are classified as category a) in accordance with Article 2 of Royal Decree 661/2007, to establish the provisions of Article 6.3.d) and last paragraph of Article 6.3 of the same Royal Decree, certifying compliance with the provisions of Annex I of this Resolution.
Upon issuing the resolution of prior administrative authorization if the holder has delivered only to the Directorate General of Industry and Energy of the draft, within available administrative authorization, the holder must submit the final design of the facility , which indicates whether changes made after the administrative authority and request approval.
2.3.3. Application for public utility Should public interest is requested should request jointly with the administrative authorization and processed in accordance with the established procedure.
2.3.4. Presentation of the technical documentation for the installation of electricity production from small power low voltage and medium voltage to the Directorate General of Industry and Energy. Commissioning testing, granting the status of production facility under the special regime and previous registration of production facilities under the special regime.
1. After the installation, the operator shall submit to the General Directorate of Industry and Energy the following documentation:
Application, which indicated if you have made modifications to the project.
Certificate of completion of the work.
Installation certificate medium voltage and low voltage.
Manufacturer's certificate of compliance attesting investors Real
Decree 842/2002, of 2 August, amending the Low Voltage Electrical Regulations, Royal Decree 1699/2011, of 18 November, approving the networking of production facilities approved electricity small power, and other applicable regulations.
At the time of submission of this documentation, if it is complete, the Directorate General of Industry and Energy issued a document or certificates diligence installing medium voltage and low voltage. If changes have been made to the project, they will be reviewed and must appear in the document or proceeding that is issued.
2. The owner of the installation must apply and subscribe to the distributor a technical contract for access to the network for which the technical relations between them are governed. The distributor shall have a maximum of one month of the request to sign the technical access contract, provided that it has provided the documentation. The model contract is contained in Annex III of Royal Decree 1699/2011.
The Directorate General of Industry and Energy must resolve and report any discrepancies on the contract within a maximum period of one month from the date of the request for dispute resolution in the register of the Directorate General.
After signing the technical contract with the distribution company, the sponsor may apply to the Directorate General of Industry and Energy commissioning and testing upon registration in the Register of production facilities under the special regime, for which they must present the contract and the deed of assignment and technical acceptance of the divested facilities to the distribution company, along with the standard application.
If this documentation is correct, the Directorate General of Industry and Energy to authorize commissioning for installation tests, will grant the condition of production facility under the special regime and must register temporarily in the Register of production facilities special regime. Otherwise, you must claim the holder to remedy the deficiencies within 10 days
3. After carrying out the procedures described in the previous sections, you can proceed with the installation connection.The connection request may be done along with the subscription request technical access contract mentioned in the previous section.
After notifying the distributor of the connection request, it has a maximum term of one month to connect to the network.
Once the connection is made, you can do an initial installation verification in accordance with Article 8 of Royal Decree 1699/2011. If, as a result of verification, the distributor is any impact, it has informed the holder for the fix. In case of disagreement, they may apply to the Directorate General of Industry and Energy the necessary inspections and resolution
of the discrepancy.
The distributor must be responsible and bear the cost of the connection and the connection of production facilities to the existing distribution network, subject to regulatory compliance and security protocols.
2.3.5. Final commissioning of the installation and registration in the Register of production facilities under the special regime.
After making the checks and supporting evidence, the promoter request final commissioning and final registration of the facility, for which it must submit the following documents:
Technical contract with the distribution company, if they have not delivered.
Document option to sell energy.
Written agreement with the distribution company in which the responsibilities of operation and maintenance of the parts of these facilities that may have been transferred to the distributor, with the corresponding schema, if not contained in the review report of the project is set .
Certificate issued by the head of reading.
Report system operator or transmission system attesting to the proper completion of the procedures for access and connection (art 12.1.c of Royal Decree 661/2007).
Deed of assignment and technical acceptance of the divested facilities to the distribution company (if they have not delivered).
Certification of compliance with the requirements of Article 4 of Royal Decree 2019/1997 of 26 December, which organizes and regulates the market for electricity production, for the subjects of the production market.
After analyzing the evidence, if it is correct, the Directorate General of Industry and Energy to authorize the final commissioning of the facility and must enroll permanently in the Register of production facilities under the special regime.Otherwise, the Directorate General of Industry and Energy must claim the developer to remedy the deficiencies within 10 days.
2.4 Procedures to be performed by email with the distribution company
In the procedures that the developer has to be directed by email to the distributor, it will issue an automatic acknowledgment of receipt and must respond to the request, either notifying their
deficiencies or granting the request, within a maximum period of 10 days.
2.5. Standardized documentation
Models of standardized documentation will be published on the website of the Directorate General of Industry and Energyhttp://www.caib.es .
3. Technical conditions for connecting production facilities of low voltage electricity for own consumption on the distribution networks In order to interpret and clarify the technical conditions of the production facilities of electricity from small power low voltage established in Chapter III of Royal Decree 1699/2011 and the provisions of the Low Voltage Electrotechnical Regulations, detailed the technical connection are:
The production facilities of electricity can be connected to the inner receiving facility as described in this section and comply with Low Voltage Electrical Regulations approved by Royal Decree 842/2002, of 2 August, Royal Decree 1699/2011, of November 18, by which the grid connection of facilities producing electricity from small power, and technical conditions for installation link (CIES) in force, with the characteristics listed below is regulated.
You must install a single computer bidirectional extent that records the transferred energy and the consumption of the network, however, it is necessary to have a device that can be integrated into components or devices to control the generating facility (p. eg. the investor), to measure the energy generated, which must be prepared for future telemetry. In the case of an installation connected to the low side of a transformer owned by the consumer, the measuring equipment shall be independent of generation consumer.
The circuit of the generating facility that connects to the internal network or installation must be used exclusively for the evacuation of the energy generated.
Should the onslaught of supply in question remain disconnected from the distribution network, either for maintenance or operation or performance of any protection, the generating facility must not keep any case tension in the distribution network.
The production facility can operate in island on the consumption of self reception facility without power other network users. In this case, install an automatic switch to disconnect the generator-set of the facility receiving the distribution network, according to current regulations.
"Connected generator installation" on modules measuring equipment facilities supply electricity production of small power plate, a label or sticker of durable materials with the following will adhere.
The owners or users of installations of production of electrical energy for own consumption opting for these wiring diagrams interruptibility accept his power if necessary isolate the generating facility's distribution network for reasons of operational or supply default electric receiving facility.
The connection of the production facility of electricity for own consumption on the deck will take place according to the schemes described below:
a) The general picture or subframes of the inner electrical installation
The circuit of the generating facility must be connected to the electrical panel of the indoor facility, downstream of the main switch via a circuit breaker rated current and suitable cutting power, and its nominal intensity necessary to evacuate the energy generated for circuit protection and equal to or lower than the main switch box or subframes. At the end of the installation generating another breaker the same characteristics as the picture and a differential switch adequate nominal current 30 mA sensitivity and install.
These devices are not necessary if the investor or any other device generating facility make this feature.
Downstream of the meter on the individual branch, install an isolator switch with appropriate nominal current load and locking device by lock, as described in subsequent paragraphs. In any case, identify the existence of a generating facility connected by a silkscreened plate with symbols of Annex II, clinging on the switch or clamped on conductors located right off of it.
If single-phase supplies with measuring equipment located within an enclosure and measure (CPM) and drivers section ≤ 35mm2, the disconnect switch can be mounted in the same module counter, DIN rail high relative to the plate base, so that the passage of the conductors between fuses and counter is not difficult.
In the case of single-phase supplies with token inside CPM, or section above 35 mm2 conductors, connection devices and the disconnect switch is installed in a module or separate table annexed to the counter, with transparent lid or door . These devices should not be directly accessible and to manipulate should be necessary to disassemble or open the lid or door. In any case, the free space for the counter must meet V.5.4 drawing of the CIE No. 5, the distance between the side of the switch and the central vertical axis of the count ≥ 7.5 cm for single-phase meters and ≥ 10 cm for three-phase meters.
If the measuring equipment interior installation is located in a centralized modular docking station counters with individual leads by connecting terminals mounted on DIN rail terminals for the provision in question be replaced by a load interrupter switch rated current and appropriate interlock with lock, identifying the provision to which it belongs.
If the measuring equipment is situated within a centralized non-modular counters, the disconnect switch must be installed individually in a box or separate box, right number of elements, as close as possible to the base of the counter, and identified the provision to which it belongs, without prejudice to the installation of link required to fulfill the required safety regulatory requirements regarding maintenance.
If the switch is installed in a box or separate box CPM should also identify the existence of a generating facility connected by a plate silkscreened with the symbolism of Annex II, clinging over the counter or flange on the conductors located just off it.
b) The individual branch, in the enclosure and measure or centralization of counters.
In any case, the origin of the circuit generating facility is installing the protections set out in the first paragraph above.
Downstream of the measuring equipment, the individual branch must supply two disconnectors connected in parallel, on one of which should connect the individual branch that feeds the receiving facility and the other circuit production facility, both with device Locking by lock.
In the case of single-phase supplies with measuring equipment installed individually within CPM, for sections of conductors up to 16 mm2, interrupter switches can be mounted on the same counter module, DIN rail high relative to the base plate, so that the passage of the conductors between fuses and counter is not difficult. In this case, for individual branch connection from the counter on the two switches in parallel using unipolar terminal and combs or double ferrules in case cable runs. It should identify the amount of the generating facility and the receiving switch by a plate silkscreened with the symbolism of Annex II, clinging on the switch or flanged respective conductors.
In the case of single-phase supplies with token inside CPM, or section greater than 16 mm2 conductors, connection devices and disconnectors are installed on module or separate table annexed to the counter, with transparent lid or door, and identify the switch and the receiving installation of the generator, in the manner described above. These devices should not be directly accessible and to manipulate should be necessary to disassemble or open the lid or door. In any case, the free space for the counter must meet V.5.4 drawing of the CIE No. 5, the distance between the side of the switch and the central vertical axis of the count ≥ 7.5 cm for single-phase meters and ≥ 10 cm for three-phase meters.
If the measuring equipment interior installation is located in a centralized modular docking station counters with individual leads by connecting terminals mounted on DIN rail terminals for the provision in question be replaced by two disconnectors, or They are to be installed in module or separate box, as described in the preceding paragraph, identifying the switch of the receiving installation, the generator and, if they are installed in a box or separate box, providing it belongs.
If the measuring equipment is situated within a centralized non-modular counters, disconnectors be installed individually in a box or separate box, right number of elements, as close as possible to the base of the counter, and identified Switch the receiving installation, the generator and the provision to which they belong, without prejudice to the installation of link has to comply with the required safety regulatory requirements regarding maintenance.
c) If the point of connection to the network is high voltage transformer center and there is a consumer-owned, besides indicated in paragraph
3 a) of this Circular, the connection of the generating facility can also be performed in one of the free outputs of the low-voltage transformer. In this case, on the premises where the low voltage transformer will be identified with a sticker of durable materials generating circuit installation and install a switch of this circuit breaker is located.
In Annex III contains these wiring diagrams.
Technical considerations outlined in this section are without prejudice to the provisions of Article 23.3 of Royal Decree 842/2002 of 2 August, the low voltage Electrotechnical Regulation is approved.
4. Review of the production facilities Production facilities in accordance with Article 10.6 of Royal Decree 1699/2011, should be reviewed at least every three years by qualified technicians, freely appointed by the owner of the facility. From this review, a report in which data are consigned recognized installation be drawn, gross energy generated is computed monthly and annually, and must certify compliance with the regulatory conditions or, alternatively, the proposed corrective measures necessary . The operators of installations must keep a copy of the reports. The Directorate General of Industry and Energy to enable a
system for electronic data installation, report content and gross energy generated to communicate.
Palma, September 24, 2012
The Director General of Industry and Energy
Ochogavía Jaime Colón
|Maintenance Photovoltaic Solar Energy - 26/03/2013
Maintenance of solar photovoltaic systems
What it is a solar photovoltaic system?
A solar photovoltaic system is a set of elements whose function directly convert the energy of sunlight into electricity. A simple system is basically composed of a solar panel, a battery charge controller accumulation, storage batteries and an inverter or converter direct current into alternating current (can be optional). In addition, consumers elements can be lights, radios, televisions, computers and other appliances.
The photovoltaic panel is responsible for producing the electrical energy needed to operate the solar photovoltaic system.This is composed of one or a set of photovoltaic modules conveniently interconnected with the aim of increasing the current or voltage, since in many applications the independent solar modules can not supply the energy needed for a particular use.
The charge controller for storage batteries is an electronic device that operates to ensure overload or deep discharge in the storage batteries in order to prolong its life. The storage battery is in charge of transforming electrical energy generated in the solar panel and accumulate in the form of chemical energy, and then the reverse process so that this energy can be used by consumers teams. The fundamental cause of the use of the storage battery is determined by the mismatch between the generation (diurnal) and consumption (which is usually performed in night hours).
The inverter or converter direct current into alternating current (DC / AC ) it is an electronic device that converts direct current into alternating current electricity for conventional appliances (lamps, radios, televisions, computers, etc.) can function without making modifications to the equipment maintenance of photovoltaic solar installation solar installations PV, as a whole, are easy to maintain.However, a facility that does not have the proper maintenance easily have problems in a more or less short term.
There are maintenance tasks not carried out simply lead to reduced performance of the installation, but the omission of others could cause deterioration of some elements or shortening its life.
For all these reasons there is a set of tasks that can be perfectly performed by the user to extend the life of these systems.
Photovoltaic panel maintenance
Basic maintenance of photovoltaic solar panel includes the following:
Systematically clean the front cover glass of the photovoltaic solar panel (it is recommended that the time between cleanings is made taking into account the level of environmental dirt Cleaning should be done with water and a soft cloth. If necessary, use detergent .
Check for loose or broken terminals, connections are tight and that drivers are in good condition. In case of abnormalities, contact specialized personnel.
Verify that the support structure is in good condition. Should this not be protected from the elements (ie, other than aluminum, stainless or galvanized steel), treat with antirust paint.
Systematically prune shade trees that may cause the photovoltaic solar panel. Do not place near objects that can provide shade, such as water tanks and antennas. In the case of trees it must provide for pruning when necessary
Never try to clean dirt on the front cover of the photovoltaic solar panel with sharp objects that could damage it.
Maintenance of storage battery
The storage battery is the element of photovoltaic solar power systems representing small biggest danger for anyone in need of manipulating (even for basic maintenance), therefore their electrical characteristics and chemical. Therefore, before providing basic maintenance rules fundamental risks that may occur, as well as some recommendations and considerations to be taken into account to avoid accidents exposed.
The electrolyte used in the batteries of accumulation of lead-acid is dilute acid, which can cause irritation and even burns on contact with skin and eyes.
The following procedures are given to prevent personal injury or lessen its effects: If for some reason the electrolyte contacts the eyes should be rinsed immediately with plenty of water for one minute, keeping eyes open. If contact is with skin, wash immediately with plenty of water the affected area. In both cases, after the first neutralizing action, seek medical attention quickly.
The storage battery can present a risk of short circuits. It is recommended when handling observe the following rules:
Remove watches, rings, chains or other metal objects of personal adornment which may accidentally come into contact with the terminals of the storage battery.
Whenever you need them, use tools with handles electrically isolated.
accumulation batteries present a risk of explosion and therefore fire because they generate hydrogen gas. The following is recommended:
Provide good ventilation in the place of location of the storage battery to prevent buildup of explosive gases.
Do not smoke in the area where the storage battery or turn sparks to observe the level of the electrolyte is located.
Keep the area of the storage battery away from flames, sparks and any other source that can cause fire.
No cause sparks shorting the battery to check their state of charge, as it can also cause explosion.
Basic maintenance of storage battery comprising the following:
Verify that the local location of the storage batteries is well ventilated and the batteries protected from sunlight are. * Keep the electrolyte level in the appropriate limits (adicione only distilled water when necessary to replenish losses during gassing). It is recommended in practice always completely covers the electrolyte plates, between 10 and 12 mm above the top edge. Should the outer box transparent storage battery and possession limits electrolyte level, this will be between the maximum and minimum limits set by the manufacturer.
Clean the top cover of the battery and protect the terminals with grease antioxidant to prevent sulfation.
Check that the terminals are tight.
Ensure that the use of batteries is adequate and its supporting structure is safe and in good condition).
Keep the load controller correctly positioned, clean, dry and protected from the sun's rays.
Check the correct operation of the charge controller. If you detect abnormal sounds, contact specialized personnel.
Check that connections are correct and tight.
Check that the input fuse is in good condition.
Note: If the charge controller does not work, contact specialized personnel. Maintaining the inverter or converter CD / CA
Verify that the location area investor remains clean, dry and well ventilated.
Verify that the investor is protected from sunlight.
Check the inverter works properly and that no strange noises occur within it. If the operation is defective or does not work, contact specialized personnel.
Maintenance of electrical equipment and wiring consumption
Maintaining consumer electrified equipment (radios, televisions, refrigerators, computers, etc.), it is the same that is done to them when operatively connected to the electrical system company.
In the case of refrigerators, it is located in a well-ventilated to ensure a more efficient use and therefore should not move it without consulting the specialist.
Check all joints and connections are tightened to avoid false contacts, and properly secured with tape. Clean the fluorescent tube and the protective cover of the lamps (if possesses), to obtain a higher light level regularly.
If a system component is not functioning properly and its solution is out of the actions that have been established in the basic manual, immediately contact the specialized personnel. Do not go to any unauthorized person or treat yourself to solve the problem. This measure will prevent accidents and damage to the facility
Recommendations and tips
Unplug appliances in the days of heavy thunderstorms and cyclones to prevent a lightning can damage them.
Do not connect appliances or other that have not been considered in the design, without consulting the specialist teams system, since overcharging by excessive consumption can cause malfunctions.
Do not allow others to connect to your installation.
Do not connect equipment exceeding the inverter DC / AC, as this may damage power overload.
Distilled water stored in plastic or glass containers; whenever I go to add distilled water to the storage battery, also use plastic or glass funnel (under no circumstances use metal containers).
One way to collect distilled water in rainy days. Once it starts to rain, wait 10 to 15 minutes and then place an open, plastic or glass container outdoors. Never collect water from roofs, gutters and other media.
No use in place of distilled water to refill the storage battery, river water, boiled or other than the recommended because this damages the life of the storage battery.
Look regularly on the indicators lighting charge controller and note if any of them does not turn on, immediately contact qualified personnel.
If a lamp is not lit and the fluorescent tube is not blown or defective, check both the fuse (if any) as the switch. If anyone is defective, replace it with another.
Always remember that in photovoltaic systems, as energy is limited, the maximum saving is much more necessary.Therefore, do not keep lights or equipment switched on unnecessarily.
|What is the difference between different types of investors? What it is to be used in each case? - 14/03/2013
Investors convert the direct current into alternating current. The current produces a current flow in one direction, while the alternating current rapidly changing the direction of current flow from one part to another. The frequency of the alternating current in countries like Spain is usually 50 cycles. Each cycle includes the movement of the current first in one direction and then another. This means that the direction of the current changes 100 times per second.
The alternating current supplied by a power company or by a diesel or gasoline generator is (or should be) like the one shown in the figure in black color. Changes in the magnitude of the voltage follows a sinusoidal law, so that the current is also a sine wave. The conversion of DC to AC is accomplished in several ways. The best way depends on how it is to resemble the sine wave ideal for proper operation of the AC load: Square wave inverters: most inverters work by direct current through a transformer through, first one direction and then another.
The switching device that changes the direction of the current must act quickly. As the current passes through the primary side of the transformer, the polarity changes 100 times every second. Consequently, the current out of the transformer secondary is alternating, at a rate of 50 complete cycles per second. The direction of current flow through the primary side of the transformer is changed very abruptly, so that the secondary waveform is "square", represented in the figure by purple. square wave inverters are cheaper, but usually they are also the least efficient. Produce harmonics generating interference (noise).
They are not suitable for induction motors. If AC power is desired only to power a television, a computer or a small electric device, you can use this type of investor. The potency of this will depend on the rated power of the device in question (for a 19 "TV is sufficient inverter 200 W). Inverter modified sine wave : They are more sophisticated and expensive, and used modulation techniques pulse width .
The width of the wave is it modified to bring it as close as possible to a sine wave.
The output is not yet a true sine wave, but it's pretty close. The harmonic content is lower than in the square wave.
The figure represents . in blue are the best quality / price offered for connecting lighting, TV or frequency converters. sine wave inverters : with more elaborated electronics can get a pure sine wave Until recently these investors were. large and expensive, besides being inefficient (sometimes only 40% efficiency). Recently, new sinewave inverters have been developed with an efficiency of 90% or more, depending on the power, such as S-1200. Incorporating the latest generation microprocessors allows increasing the performance of investors with value-added services like remote, counting of energy consumed, battery selection.
However, its cost is higher than that of less sophisticated investors. Since only induction motors and more sophisticated devices or loads require a form of pure sine wave is usually preferable to use less expensive and more efficient inverters. Within a short time the cost of sine wave inverters will approach that of the others, popularized installation.
|How solar powered car work? - 18/02/2013
The energy of sunlight can be converted into other forms of energy that easily transport and distribute: electricity. For this purpose devices are used, called photovoltaic cells that convert light energy, photons, into electricity, electrons.
The solar panels that can be observed in some traffic signals, street lights or houses are composed of photovoltaic cells that convert sunlight into electricity, allowing a bulb lights, drive an electric motor, etc.Photovoltaic cells are a class photocells, which, in turn, are solar cells capable of producing an electrical phenomenon. A photovoltaic cell can be formed by a sheet of gold or silver, silicon and an iron nickel.
One of the most amazing applications of this phenomenon are the vehicles that are powered by energy from sunlight: planes, cars, boats , etc. In Australia each year the car race, the World Solar Challenger (Darwin), in which only solar powered cars involved is held.The key to the operation of photovoltaic cells is at disposal in a "sandwich" of materials with differently, so that some have extra electrons and others, however, deficit. Photons from sunlight carry an energy that starts remaining electrons of a layer and makes them move toward the "empty" of the other.
The result is the creation of electron flow, and therefore, an electric voltage. This voltage is very small, but connecting a large number of cells can reach the voltage we want. In everyday life, many PV installations are small and are used to support the power of a house, or road signs. In the For cars, photovoltaic cells power a battery, which, in turn, is responsible for driving the electric motor car. In the car we see in the photograph, the plates covering the upper part of the body collect a power of 100 watts, which recharges a lithium battery cells of about 34 kg. This battery powers the electric motor, which develops a power of 1,900 watts.
|Connection between Solar panels; serial, parallel, seri / parallel. - 26/01/2013
In this section we will teach you how to connect multiple solar panels in parallel in order to obtain an increase in the production of the current available, while maintaining the rated voltage.
The difference between a parallel connection of two or more like photovoltaic panels and parallel connection of two or more photovoltaic panels with different specifications are also explained. Finally, valuable and practical for greater efficiency and prevent damage caused by faults or short circuits that can occur in different solar panels offer advice.
; increase the voltage (V) while maintaining the same current (A)
; and increase the current (A) maintaining the same voltage (V).
PARALLEL CONNECTION OF TWO IDENTICAL SOLAR PANELS:
If we have two solar panels of the same voltage and power, the connection is very simple, just have to connect the positive terminal of a panel with other positive and negative end of a panel with the negative end of another
Installation conditions continue;
South orientation and tilt angle recommended by place of installation and use periods of the facility.
Check that the panels do not shade each other and obstacles that are far from casting their shadows on the panels possible.
Choosing a suitable cable section according to the distance of the panels to the charge controller.
CONEXIO PARALLEL TWO DIFFERENT SOLAR POWER:
If we have two solar panels of the same voltage (V), but with different power (W), no problem, can also be connected in parallel. If the contrary happens, that tensions (V) are different not be possible to connect them in parallel as the most behave like smaller, wasting performance at higher voltage.
If for example we had a plate and two 12v 6v, ideally both serializing together 6V (6V + 6V), then that group of two parallel connect with 12v.
With this method you can connect multiple solar panels, but you must pay attention to the number of panels connected as the output current increases and if we do not control the system dañaríamos. To prevent accidents and damage -parallel a series connection to control the output values of solar panels are used.
For example;if we were to connect 6 panels of 10 A parallel would be in a high current output, ie, 60 A, well, to solve this problem and optimize the energy efficiency of all would connect system two panels in series and then connected in parallel to the three pairs previously connected in series. In the next picture you can see the outline of what we have explained. This type of connection is frequently used for substantial energy plants.
In an installation of photovoltaic systems, the choice of total system power, choosing the charge controller, power inverter, wiring, protection, capacity and battery voltage must be carefully substantial in the design phase with what is very important to know the Wh / day consumed and the geographical area where installed.
If you want us a personalized study without commitment, inquire at www.enersolma.com
|The train, the method of mass transport more efficient, also in 2013 will be the cleanest in Spain - - 18/01/2013
Acciona was awarded in last October 94% of supply by 2013 ADIF, the management company of the railway infrastructure in Spain. This implies that a very high percentage of trains and railway infrastructure network in Spain will be activated this year starting with 100% clean energy and carbon free.
Specifically operates renewable electricity supply to all lines of the AVE (high speed train) to all nodes nearby, as well as the power lines of other railway lines including Spain Avila-Galicia-Asturias Medina-Basque Country, Alcazar de San Juan-Andalusia, Navarre-Rioja and Alcazar de San Juan-Levante and others. Also, it will be responsible for part of the energy supply to ADIF facilities such as buildings, stations and other.
The total contract represents an estimated total of 2,600 million kilowatt hours consumption. All the energy supplied in this tender will have certification from renewable sources, which will be accredited by the CNE (National Energy Commission), which ensures that you will have a 100% renewable origin and come from facilities generating renewable energy company concessionaire manages and totaling more than 6,000 MW of installed capacity.
In 2012, the company and was awarded 71% of the electricity go out to tender, which amounted to 2.114 billion kilowatt hours.
Source of information: www.acciona.es
|Africa: Continent least electrified, the more photovoltaic potential. - 16/12/2012
Only 26% of people Saharan enjoy connecting to the mains. These figures, along with solar radiation received this continent, they assume that the continent is a potential market for renewable energy.
11: 00Y that, without some North African countries already have plans to create power plants for mass production of a plan to export electricity to Europe.
The reason for the low percentage of networking is the poor economic viability for companies is the expansion of the grid for each village, in places where the population density is very low and their level of income per capita is below poverty thresholds.
Precisely this low economic level also hinders the expansion of solar energy across the continent. Consequently, various NGOs and other organizations have developed photovoltaic electrification programs in disadvantaged area.
One is the roject developed between German companies and Shott Solar GmbH Kaito.He desarrolo the project in Senegal, where only a third of its inhabitants have electricity network. In rural areas this percentage drops to 20%.
Patients Clinic Dance, south of the country, also had to deal daily with these problems. With a capacity of only 10 beds, you have to cover the health care of the existing population in many kilometers around. When there were power cuts, which occurs several times a day, doctors had to solve as they could: with candles or oil lamps for lighting, and a generator when diesel was available. This has changed since May 2008, when a photovoltaic installation was performed.
102 solar modules were installed on the roof of the clinic to provide it with electricity. The total capacity of the facility is 5 kW, and produces 8,000 kWh of electricity per year. The system is operational in 20 milliseconds when outages occur.
In this area, on the edge of the rainforest, the rains are abundant monsoon actually live for several months a year. For this reason, double-glazed modules, namely replicas and the PQ 40/50 modules with stainless steel frames, which are being used since the late eighties in countries like Indonesia and Thailand were used. These modules have passed the IEC 61215 standard, which subjects the modules to extreme moisture testing and temperature fluctuations during 2000 hours.Particularly at temperatures of 85C with a humidity of 85%. In tests of temperature change, they are subjected to 400 cycles of temperature changes where the peaks are -40 and 85 ° C.
Source: Sun & Wind Energy
|FAQ Energia Solar Thermal and Photovoltaic Solar Energy. - 16/12/2012
Why use solar energy? What can we get with solar energy?
We can speak of two types of utilization of solar energy: which energy is used to produceheat (basically, hot water and heating) and which converts solar radiation into electricity using technology called photovoltaics .
What is solar energy?
Solar thermal energy is the use of radiation from the Sun for: production of hot water for domestic or industrial use, pool heating, heating our homes, hotels, schools, factories, etc.
Solar thermal energy of low temperature involves the use of radiation from the sun to heat a fluid at temperatures typically less than 80 ° C. This is performed with so-called solar collectors that take advantage of the qualities of absorption of the radiation and heat transmission of some materials, and the greenhouse effect occurs when another material (for example glass) is transparent to radiation shortwave sun and opaque to longwave radiation emitted by bodies that are hot.
How I can use solar thermal energy in my house?
Mainly to produce hot water used in the home, although in some cases it can also be used to reduce the energy consumption of the heating or increase the time of use of a pool, especially at the beginning and end of the period commonly used, that is, from May to September, as we can get it is to increase the water temperature by a few degrees.
What is photovoltaics?
Photovoltaic solar energy into electrical energy transforms solar radiation through a photovoltaic cells or solar panels. This energy is clean and produces no greenhouse gas emissions so not conducive climate change and thus global warming.
The process of transforming solar energy into electrical energy is produced on a semiconductor element called photovoltaic cell. When sunlight strikes a PV cell, photons from sunlight transmit their energy to the electrons of the semiconductor so that they can circulate within the solid. Photovoltaic technology gets out of these electrons out of the semiconductor material thereby generating an electric current can flow through an external circuit. These photovoltaic cells are joined in series to form photovoltaic solar panels. The electricity generated is direct current, which for use must be converted to alternating current by-denominated investors, which is what we use at home.
What applications have photovoltaic solar energy?
Virtually any application that requires electricity to operate can be fed with a suitably sized photovoltaic system. The only limitation, sometimes, is the field size panels, which have adequate guidance and are free of shadows. However, in remote locations far from the electricity distribution network, the most profitable is usually installed photovoltaic energy rather than a costly connection to the network.
The main applications include: networking, home electrification, pumping and irrigation systems, road lighting, radio and television repeaters, sewage treatment plants, etc.
Does it serve the same installation for all?
No. Depending on the needs will have to opt for the installation of solar thermal and photovoltaic panels, although facilities are perfectly compatible and can have solar panels for hot water or heating and solar photovoltaic panels in the same installation, for electricity production or for sale to the grid.
What is the difference between solar thermal and photovoltaics?
The main differences are:
- Solar thermal energy is used to produce hot water for various uses, such as hot water, heating support, pool heating, industrial processes with heating of water or other fluids as well as for the production of cold air conditioning in combination with absorption machine.
- Photovoltaic solar energy is used for power generation.
What are the advantages of having a facility to use solar energy?
The use of solar thermal and photovoltaic solar energy has the following advantages:
• Improving energy independence from Spain and, particularly, of the Community of Madrid, a region which currently produces only 3% of all energy consumed.
• conservation of exhaustible natural resources.
• Additional revenue from the sale of electricity.
• Lower energy bills.
• Guarantees to the increase in fuel prices: once
completing the installation, solar energy is free and unlimited.
• Reduction of vulnerability to fuel supplies.
• Increase the value of homes.
• Environmental awareness: This energy is clean, produces no greenhouse gas emissions or favor the destruction of the ozone layer.
• Improved company image by using this type of energy (for companies).
• Compliance with statutory requirements.
What environmental impact does solar power?
This energy is clean, produces no greenhouse gas emissions nor favors the destruction of the ozone layer.
I heard that solar power is only for small houses. Is this true?
No. Applications of solar energy reaching all facilities, both small domestic installations, buildings, installations SMEs or large industrial installations.
With these systems I do not need any additional such as boiler or conventional power grid?
Solar energy is always a support facility to conventional installation and not sunny days than production in the case of solar thermal energy is very low. A solar thermal energy, thus not replace the conventional installation, but will support it to reduce consumption during daylight hours.
In some cases there are installations of photovoltaic solar energy in isolated houses, which only need another energy support system in case of long periods of bad weather, then, as in the case of solar thermal energy, its production is reduced. As a guide, it should be noted that solar thermal energy normally cover 60% of energy needs to produce the hot water needed.
Can I have hot water and electricity simultaneously?
Solar thermal and photovoltaic systems are technically independent of each other, ie, the same panel can not be obtained while heat and electricity. To obtain these two energies simultaneously would be necessary to install two separate systems, one thermal and photovoltaic other.
How long it is amortized?
There are different factors that determine the amortization period of an installation: the correct calculation of needs, system optimization, proper installation and quality of materials, obtained public subsidies and mainly use. However, to give an idea, we can say that thermal installations are amortized approximately 4-6 years. In turn, photovoltaic installations are amortized after 7-9 years.
What can you do with electricity?
It can be used directly (draw water from a well, generate light, water, etc.) or it can be stored in batteries for later use (generate light at night). In the event that the mains reaches the installation site, the best alternative is to sell all the electricity generated to the electricity company. Thus, an economic benefit occurs in favor of the individual or company because the sale price of the electricity generated (0.421498 € / kWh) is substantially higher than the purchase price to the company (about 0.083 € / kWh)
What is the lifespan of a solar panel?
In the case of solar thermal systems, installations have a period longer than 20 years life. In the case of photovoltaic installations, the lifetime is estimated to be around 30 years. However, it is important to note that the equipment installed 20 years ago are still operating but with reduced performance. Furthermore, in the case of photovoltaic systems, if one of the cells fails, this does not affect the operation of the other, and the current and voltage produced can be easily adjusted by adding or removing cells.
You can break easily solar modules?
The panels are protected on the outside face with tempered glass, which allows withstand harsh weather conditions such as ice, abrasion, extreme temperature changes or impact of hail so they are very resistant to inclement weather. A standard test for certification is an air cannon to launch a ball of ice predetermined size and consistency to the center of the crystal.
Does the installation requires qualified personnel?
The installation of this type of equipment must be performed by qualified personnel to get the best possible performance from them and ensure their proper functioning.
Should we revise? Who maintains it?
Such facilities require minimal maintenance to be, yes, made by companies specializing in this field
What is the peak power of a panel?
It is the output power, in watts, producing a photovoltaic panel at a temperature of 25 ° C and solar radiation of 1 kW / m2 (which occurs on a sunny day at solar noon).
How much sun there, I get better performance?
In the case of solar thermal energy, the more will warm sun has the same amount of water at the desired temperature in less time. For photovoltaic solar installations, have more temperature does not mean having better yields.
Will I stay out of hot water when there is no sun?
Solar collectors not only capture sunlight during clear days; existing diffuse radiation on cloudy days is also utilized (but at a lower performance than favorable circumstances). During periods of adverse weather, the store is responsible for maintaining the constant temperature water temperature losses hardly occur. However, if long periods of bad weather, such facilities use support systems powered by conventional energy (gas, electricity, oil, etc.) which, if necessary, provide the optimum temperature for use.
Are the solar panels can operate on cloudy days?
Photovoltaic panels generate electricity even on cloudy days, nevertheless their efficiency decreases. The production of electricity varies linearly to light incident on the panel; a completely cloudy day equals approximately 10% of the total intensity of the sun, and performance of the panel decreases in proportion to this value.
Can I become completely independent of gas or electric company?
Long periods of adverse weather, make unwise full independence to the user, but in this case, the gas and electricity will be used to support the solar system, and therefore electricity bills, gas, etc. they will be considerably reduced.
Are all panels the same?
Not all panels are equal, depending quality performance thereof. For more information, please contact one of the following sponsors of the campaign have specialized personnel in this area and are happy to help.
Need some guidance?
The performance of this type of installation is higher if the panels are properly oriented (southbound).
What is the ideal place to install a solar panel?
Solar panels work best if they are placed in a place where they receive full sunlight. They can be placed on the roof of a home or office, on a support structure (pole), mounted on the facade or on the ground. It is preferable to avoid places that receive shade (near trees, chimneys, other buildings, etc.), as the shadow affect electricity production of the panels. The solar panels must be mounted so that, at noon, are in the direction of the sun, in order to generate maximum power.
How many panels or surface need to install?
This will depend on the energy needs we have, for which it must make a particularized study of each installation. Keep in mind that a thermal solar panel usually occupies about 2 m2, while one is around 1.25 m2 photovoltaic
A lot Pesa installation?
No cover housing normally supports enough weight to perform an installation. However, our advice is to address it to the specialized as, for example, corporate sponsors of the campaign, for a study to measure company.
Do I need to perform some type of work?
The civil works associated with either type of solar energy is, in most cases, minimal, but should always be done by the right professional.
What I need to install it at home?
It is not require any special conditions, in houses can be installed on the deck, provided that it is not in shady area during the day and whether it is in a residential building, just on deck or in a sunny garden and always that the homeowners approve this facility to all the neighbors.
Where is it installed? Where can you put?
In any space that possesses the recommended requirements of solar orientation and released shadows.
|Components of a photovoltaic solar energy system. - 09/12/2012
Here we will deal with the most common components that are used in any PV system regardless of the type of system we use. We will just explain that components are and explain what they do. This page is only intended as a first approach.
Battery. If we use photovoltaic technology particularly, collect solar energy during daylight hours, the we transform and spend during the night hours, as a rule. For this, we will require batteries or batteries. The batteries can be of various kinds, be one or several, and have different types of connection.
2. Charge controller. In the case of using batteries, need necessarily protect against surges and ensure proper charging, this is the mission of the charge controller.
3.Inversor. The transformed energy is continuous power. At least we have all the appliances of DC voltage, which is difficult to obtain and too costly economically, we need investors. The inverter converts the DC voltage into AC voltage. It will depend on the use that we will make installation, the class or type of investor you need to implement, this is because if we are going to supply power to the grid, we need an inverter high-end, they are usually quite expensive. On the other hand, if the installation is intended for domestic use, with a more economical investment we managed well.
Demand quality electrical networks, both frequency wave signal, which requires us to have a good investor. 5. General protection.In general protection, we include both the protection of the rest of the electrical and electronic equipment, such as protecting people. They can be diodes, main switches, etc.
They must be positioned in the parts of the installation necessary. As an example, I say that is not the same as we electrocutemos 400 V DC voltage to 10,000 V AC voltage, strangely enough, we have more chance of survival with a barrage of 10,000 V alternate. So caution with what we play. 6.Solar modules. We could not stop talking, if only slightly, the star component boards or solar modules. There are many types of very different material. Most silicon compounds are used.
|Tips for saving energy at home. - 30/11/2012
Refrigerator: a whopping 30.6% of the energy we consume in our homes is carried and could resultarnos almost impossible save on appliance essentials like this, but we can do, and easily. First, we must ensure that the fridge is full operating conditions, since their status we can assume up to 25% of the energy consumed. Actions as simple as leaving the door open longer than necessary, to ensure that we have closed the fridge well or control the temperature is right will ease our pocket. Also, you should know that introducing excessively hot foods increases the "effort" to cool the refrigerator and consume more. Other actions will keep the machine in optimum operating conditions (clean the trays, thawed twice a year ...) or, in the case you are thinking of buying a new one, look at the energy labeling (classified by the letters A , B and C are low power, D and E of average consumption, while the letters F and G involve energy-intensive refrigerators).
2. Television: Assumes 12.2% of energy. Already you know to turn the button on the TV before going to sleep (the happy "stand by") consumption rises significantly, but there are still many households who forget this economic practice. If you do not, it will not be a fool oblivion, but expensive: a TV on "standby" consume as much energy as a computer off at full capacity. Television is one of the biggest spenders, especially at the high number of hours that remain in front of the "idiot box" appliances. Clearly saves watch less TV, but if you can not help it, can carry out actions like lowering lighting to consume less. Moreover, if you buy a new television you should know that those incorporating LED technology consume 25% less than LCD and up to 40% less than plasma screens.
3. Washing machine: Consume 11.8% of energy. Tricks as simple as putting it at half load, but full, use the program wash cold whenever we can and opt for short wash cycles us, besides saving energy, will help to consume less water.
4. "Stand by": The "stand by" percentage of electricity consumption to cool our house during the summer months it takes. As ABC published, one in twelve bills are going through this whole dead consumption. And we must not only think of the red LED television when we refer to this concept. This waste energy and money involves both within the year we also leak plugs, extension cords and thieves. The role of "standby" is present in a number of products, which remain connected to awaiting our orders: air conditioning, computers, chargers, audio players, DVD ...
5. oven and hob: acquire certain habits when cooking can also save our bill. As the hob is concerned, we know that the smaller the container used consume less energy. Also we save energy covering cookware, turning off prematurely two appliances to take advantage of residual heat to complete the preparation, not opening the oven door before finishing the cooking, using heavy-bottomed containers (better distribute heat). Furthermore, as far as possible it is advisable to use the microwave to heat food, for this appliance requires less time to prepare food.
6. Dishwasher: Is one of the devices on which we must pay particular attention to the labeling of energy consumption. Consumes 6.1% of energy and to save, we can take similar to those used in the washing machine, such as choosing shorter washing programs and actions with cold temperature. Prerequisite is obviously the maximum load the device.
7. Computer: Although it is one of the elements that accompany us in our daily routine, you would not know certain customs that reduce the consumption of your PC: down lighting, remove the screen saver, turn off the computer if you do not utlizamos not be connected not to use those peripheral (printer, scanner, speakers ...). It is also important that everyone is connected to the same power strip. In the case of desktop computers, remember to turn off the monitor when you get up.
8. Lighting: Especially in winter, the lighting in our house a significant portion of electricity consumption takes.You can always exploit natural lighting, use light colors for your walls and curtains (do we need less artificial lighting), install dimmers and light bulbs used. In those places in the house where you are going to stay a long time, such as the kitchen, it is advisable to use fluorescent lamps. And please, do not leave the light on if you are not in a given space.
|Dimensioning your photovoltaic solar installation. - 29/11/2012
CALCULATE YOUR INSTALLATION PHOTOVOLTAIC ISOLATED.
The following example will calculate an approximate installation solar photovoltaic to feed an isolated housing (not connected to the national grid).
Our system will calculate to the 12 Vdc and 230 Vac for all consumption, to a range of 7 days and 2 V batteries and depth of discharge of 60%. We will not consider the losses.
We will do the calculation separately for different elements: Panels, Batteries, Controller and Investor.
Consumption of housing:
Calculation of the panels
Number of Panels = Consumed Power / Power Production.
Production = Power Panel Hsp = x 50 x 3 = 150 Wh (daily)
Number of Panels = Consumption / Production = 1.158Wh / 150Wh panel = 7.72 = * 8 panels panels
* We should always rounded top.
Calculation of controller:
Panel Ip = P / V panel = 50W / 12V = 4,17A
It = I panel * No. panels = 4, 17 * 8 = 33, 35 A
After the regulator must withstand the 33.35 Amperes. We can take a controller that supports an intensity of 40A.
Ca = Power * A / V * Pf = 1158 * 7/12 * 0.6 = 1125.8 Ah
C to the battery capacity is
Power is the energy consumed daily in Wh
A, is the autonomy of the system in days
V, is the system voltage DC
Pf is the depth of battery discharge
We will pick a battery or group of batteries Ah 1125.8 or higher supporting rate of discharge of up to 60% on specific days without sun.
They could be:
6 batteries in series of 2 volts each 100PzS 1500 Ah C100.
Calculation of the investor:
For the calculation of the investor we can keep in mind that not all consumption will be at the same time, they say they will not be all the lights on at the same time, if the TV section may be zero other works, etc.
In this way we can reduce the inverter power.
1st The inclination of the panels must be done to make up the HSP (solar peak hours), if inclined much in the summer receive little radiation, if we do little in the winter gets little radiation to go the low sun. HSP is an average of radiation, if this value is 4 means the panel will produce maximum power for 4 hours per day on average.
2nd For the exact calculation of the panels would have to take into account lost in wiring, batteries, inverter and regulator.We can make an overall estimate (usually we take the 20% or to a breakdown of all you miss).
3rd We can make the calculation of consumption / production well by day, week or month as appropriate. If the home is used on weekends, it should do so by week or month. 4th Batteries have to store energy for periods where there is no sun.The autonomy of a facility is defined as the ability to provide sufficient energy without energy input from the sun. In this case 7 days, it means that the installation should run consumption calculated for 7 days, even if fully cloudy. We note that we have more than seven days without being clear, but there is some production when it is cloudy.
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|Authorizations and legalization of facilities instant consumption are already a reality in Spain - 30/11/-0001
Authorizations and legalization of facilities instant consumption are already a reality in Spain. Baleares and Castilla and Leon, we provide the administration to follow in accordance with Royal Decree 1699/2011 procedures.
Despite that, today, the rules of Net Metering is under analysis and regulation to the General Department of Electric Power of the Ministry of Energy, Industry and Tourism, the fact is that authorizations are instant Autoconsumo now a reality.
Respect of the property on which it will project an Instant Autoconsumo installation with Pool sale price.
In this section we must differentiate between residential or domestic sector and the industrial sector, when planning a system of proposing net balance or Instant Autoconsumo facility with Pool sale price.
Well, for the sector residential or domestic application of solar energy fits is solely that of the net balance , since the producer is considered as a consumer, not being required to file its registration under the special scheme, tax on VAT, do quarterly statements, annual, etc ...
In exchange for the sector Industrial application fits perfectly Autoconsumo Instant with Pool sale price because the company owns the facility, and have these tax obligations VAT licensed activities by the municipality, it is given by high finance by what has just include a bill every month more in their accounts, and change the social object of the statutes of the society in the sense of including the sale of photovoltaic network.
Also, if we consider the consumption curve of solar production hours in the industrial sector if interested in applying Instant Autoconsumo with Pool sale price, by the time of consumption coincide with the time of generation, while in the household or residential sector is more interested in netting or net of electricity - consumed, since generation does not match consumption in most cases.
As for the procedure and Autoconsumo Instant Net Metering with Pool sale price.
As noted above, today the Net Balance does not exist.
Since last April 2012, after the promulgation of the Second Additional Provision of Royal Decree 1699/2011, of November 18, on the networking of production facilities of small power electricity is regulated, the photovoltaic industry is waiting to rules regulating the Net Metering. So this Provision Two states that "the Minister of Industry, Tourism and Commerce, within four months from the entry into force of this Royal Decree, shall submit to the Government a draft royal decree whose purpose is the regulation of the administrative, technical and economical consumption of electric energy produced within the network of a consumer for his own consumption. " If we want to project a facility Autoconsumo Instant selling price with Pool, in the Application Connection Point to the electricity distribution company must not mention the word consumption or net balance.
They are taboo words are pending regulation, still unknown to the sector. To project anInstant Autoconsumo installation with Pool sale price, which will be noted as generic sales network. We must take the high installation in the Register of Production Facilities Special Regime (RIPRE) as it has done until now, becoming producers of special regime and autoconsumiendo energy generated instantly to price pool (5cents € / kWh ) instead of the 16 cents € / kWh charged by the electricity trader.
The surplus not consumed will sell at that price pool getting an economic benefit that unlike the Net Metering will not occur. Instant Autoconsumo for facilities with Pool sale price below 10 kW will have to follow the summary procedure provided under Article 9 of Royal Decree 1699/2011. For more than 10 kW and less than 100 kW facilities will be followed the procedure provided under Article 4 of Royal Decree 1699/2011. In the Technical Project Report of PV system it is to be noted that the inverter will be connected to the internal network of the producer so that during the hours in which the plant is producing energy, is consumed in the installation of the producer without going by the counter, thereby reducing power consumption makes the producer network.
In accordance with paragraph 3 of Article 18 of Royal Decree 1699/2011: "In general, for the facilities connected to an internal network, generation and consumption circuits shall be independent and are each provided with corresponding equipment As installed both in parallel and in the same location. In cases where the production facility will exclusively sell the surplus power, the option of installing a single measuring equipment with independent records generation and consumption is permitted. In this case, the signing of two contracts of access, one for generation and the other for consumption "is required.We note that regarding the abbreviated authorization procedure and legalization of Autoconsumo Instant selling price with Pool in Castilla Leon and Baleares processing are standard models. Since UNEF is preparing a proposal to request that from all the autonomous communities from extending the uniform, can address the needs of consumption with Net Metering.
| - 30/11/-0001